Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Indian Kudzu.

  • Botanical Name: Pueraria Tuberosa

  • Ayurvedic Name: Vidari

  • Common Name: Indian Kudzu

Pueraria Tuberosa

Plant Phytonutrient Profile


1: Phytochem Anal. 2007 Jan;18(1):50-9.

Identification of isoflavone glycosides in Pueraria lobata cultures by tandem
mass spectrometry.

Prasain JK, Reppert A, Jones K, Moore DR 2nd, Barnes S, Lila MA.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham,
Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. jprasain@uab.edu

Isoflavones in the methanolic extracts of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) callus,
suspension and root cultures were compared in order to develop an experimental
system in which puerarin (daidzein 8-C-glucoside) and other isoflavones could be
synthesised in vitro. Quantitative variation of puerarin and other known
isoflavones was estimated in kudzu culture extracts using HPLC-UV. The highest
and lowest amounts of puerarin (14.56 and 0.33 mg/g) were present in in vitro
root cultures and leaf tissue-derived callus cultures, respectively. A total of
48 isoflavone metabolites were detected in extracts of kudzu root cultures by
HPLC-MS/MS, and the structures of 33 of them were tentatively assigned. Amongst
these, 12 isoflavone C-glycosides were identified. Hydroxyderivatives of
puerarin in several isomeric forms were detected, some of which have not been
previously reported in kudzu root. The molecular weights, interpretation of
characteristic fragment ions obtained from HPLC-MS/MS and comparison with
reported data allowed the putative identification of the isoflavone metabolites.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17260698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Planta Med. 1998 Oct;64(7):620-7.

Identification of Isoflavones in the Roots of Pueraria lobata.

Rong H, Stevens JF, Deinzer ML, Cooman LD, Keukeleire DD.

University of Gent, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gent, Belgium.

The isoflavones of the roots of PUERARIA LOBATA (Willd.) Ohwi (Puerariae Radix)
were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to
photodiode array (PDA) and to mass spectroscopy (MS) using atmospheric pressure
chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray ionization (ESI) in combination with
collision-activated decomposition (CAD) (HPLC-APCI-CAD-MS or ESI-CAD-MS) for
identification of glycosides and HPLC-APCI-CAD-MS for identification of
aglycones. The major glycosides are derived from daidzein ( 9) and most are 8-
C-glycosides. 3'-Hydroxypuerarin-4'- O-deoxyhexoside ( 2B) and 3'-methoxy-6''-
O- D-xylosylpuerarin ( 6) were identified as new constituents. MS data were
obtained for puerarin-4'- O- D-glucoside ( 1), 3'-hydroxypuerarin ( 2A),
puerarin ( 3), 3'-methoxypuerarin ( 4), 6''- O- D-xylosylpuerarin ( 5), daidzin
( 7) and 3'-methoxydaidzin ( 8), which were previously characterized by NMR
analysis. Isoflavones identified in Puerariae Radix comprise 3'-methoxydaidzein
( 10), genistein ( 12), daidzein-7- O-methyl ether ( 13A), 3'-methoxydaidzein-7-
O-methyl ether or 3'-methoxyformononetin ( 13B) and biochanin A ( 15), while
previous characterization of daidzein ( 9) and formononetin ( 14) was
substantiated by MS data. The structure of compound 11 could not be established
by MS techniques. The estrogenic activity was mainly located in the aglycone
fraction.

PMID: 17253303 [PubMed - in process]

3: J Reprod Dev. 2007 Jan 17; [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of the Estrogenic Activity of the Wild Pueraria mirifica by Vaginal
Cornification Assay.

Cherdshewasart W, Kitsamai Y, Malaivijitnond S.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous
samples of phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 25 of 76
provinces in Thailand by vaginal cornification assay. Tuberous powders were
prepared and administered to ovariectomized rats for 14 consecutive days at
dosages of 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg BW respectively, and were compared with a
daily treatment with 200 mug/100 g BW 17beta-estradiol (E2). Rats treated with
10 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica showed no vaginal cornification. Treatment with
100 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from 13 out of 25 plant samples resulted in
development of vaginal cornification. The cell count percentages of the vaginal
smeared cells for the treatment with the 2 plant samples that exhibited the
fastest vaginal cornification revealed large variation in their estrogenic
activities. Treatment with 1,000 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from all plant
samples produced vaginal cornification with the mean value for the period (day)
of first appearance of cornified cells being 4.08 days compared to 2 days with
200 mug/100g BW E2. The overall appearance period (day) of cornified cells
during the treatment and post-treatment period with 1,000 mg/kg BW per day
Pueraria mirifica was shorter than treatment with 200 mug/100 g BW E2. The
results demonstrate that the plant population shows differential estrogenic
activity as evaluated by vaginal cornification assay.

PMID: 17229996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4: J Reprod Dev. 2006 Dec 29; [Epub ahead of print]

Assessment of Urinary Gonadotropin and Steroid Hormone Profiles of Female
Cynomolgus Monkeys after Treatment with Pueraria mirifica.

Trisomboon H, Malaivijitnond S, Cherdshewasart W, Watanabe G, Taya K.

Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn
University.

This study investigated the changes in the urinary hormone levels of female
monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after single-dose and long-term treatments with
Pueraria mirifica (PM). The monkeys were separated into 3 groups (n=3) and
orally treated with 10, 100, or 1,000 mg of PM in each group. Two series of
experiments were performed. In the first series of experiments, the monkeys were
orally treated with a single dose of PM. The experimental schedule was divided
into a one menstrual cycle pretreatment period and a two menstrual cycle
post-treatment period. In the second series of experiments, the monkeys were
orally treated daily with PM for 90 days. The experiment schedule was divided
into a one menstrual cycle pretreatment period, a three menstrual cycle
treatment period, and a two menstrual cycle post-treatment period. Urinary
samples were collected daily and assayed for the FSH, LH, estradiol, and
progesterone levels. The results showed that there were no changes in the FSH,
LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels after treatment with a single dose of 10,
100, or 1,000 mg of PM or after daily treatment with 10 mg of PM for 90 days
compared with the levels observed during the pretreatment period. Daily
treatment with 100 mg and 1,000 mg of PM for 90 days only produced a clear
reduction in the urinary FSH levels. This suggests that changes of urinary FSH
levels can be considered an indicator for study of estrogenic effects on
hormonal levels in female monkeys.

PMID: 17202751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5: Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Jan;30(1):173-5.

Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae
Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

Sun Y, Shaw PC, Fung KP.

Department of Biochemistry and Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, NT.

In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal
the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth.,
and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS)
sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P.
thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two
species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly
conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be
used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and
may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae
and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17202681 [PubMed - in process]

6: Endocrine. 2006 Aug;30(1):93-101.

Effects of Pueraria mirifica, an herb containing phytoestrogens, on reproductive
organs and fertility of adult male mice.

Jaroenporn S, Malaivijitnond S, Wattanasirmkit K, Trisomboon H, Watanabe G, Taya
K, Cherdshewasart W.

Interdepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Graduate School, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The effects of Pueraria mirifica (PM) on reproductive organs and fertility of
adult male mice were investigated. Male mice were divided into four groups (10
mice/group). Groups 1-3 were orally treated with PM at doses of 0 (PM-0), 10
(PM-10), and 100 (PM-100) mg/kg BW/d in 0.2 mL distilled water, and group 4 was
subcutaneously injected with 200 microg/kg BW/d of synthetic estrogen
diesthylstilbestol (DES). The treatment schedule was separated into two periods:
treatment and posttreatment (8 wk for each period). The PM-10 and PM-100
treatments had no effect on testicular weight, sperm number, and serum LH, FSH,
and testosterone levels. Only the PM-100 treatment reduced weights of epididymes
and seminal vesicle and the sperm motility and viability. Histopathological
examination demonstrated that testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were
normal in all doses of PM treatment. PM-treated males showed no alterations in
mating efficiency and on causing pregnancy of their female partners. DES
injection impaired all those parameters. Offspring fathered by the PM- and
DES-treated males exhibited neither malformations nor change of body weight
gains, and the reproductive organ weights of 50-d old pups were in the normal
range. The present data clearly demonstrate that a long-term treatment of PM at
doses 10 and 100 mg/kg BW/d, via oral route, does not alter a male fertility and
a hypothalamus- pituitary-testis axis. Although PM-100 can cause some moderate
impairment, no persistent effects were observed. Most of PM-treated mice
increased the mating efficiency after stop treatment.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17185797 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Dec;44(12):1012-7.

Isoflavonoids production in callus culture of Pueraria tuberosa, the Indian
kudzu.

Vaishnav K, Goyal S, Ramawat KG.

Laboratory of Biomolecular Technology, Department of Botany, M L Sukhadia
University, Udaipur 313 001, India.

Isoflavonoid contents of different plant parts and callus tissues of the Indian
Kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC are presented. The initial cultures
were slow growing, associated with browning of the tissues. The production of
four isoflavonoids (puerarin, genistin, genistein and daidzein) in the callus
cultures of P. tuberosa was studied by manipulating the plant growth regulators
and sucrose concentration in the medium. Organogenesis was not recorded in
callus on any of these treatments. Tuber and stem accumulated puerarin, a
glycoside of daidzein, at high amounts, 0.65% and 0.054% respectively. However,
the daidzein content of the callus tissues grown on Murashige and Skoog medium
containing BA (20.9 microM) and sucrose (60 gl(-1)) was significantly higher
(0.056%) than in vivo plant material (0.02%) and other comparable culture
systems like Genista and Pueraria lobata.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17176676 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Oct;31(19):1580-3.

[Effect of several physiochemical factors on cell growth and isoflavone
accumulation of Pueraria lobata cell suspension culture]

[Article in Chinese]

Fang CB, Li HQ, Wan XC, Jiang CJ.

Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture,
Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effects of several physiochemical factors on cell
growth and isoflavone accumulation of Pueraria lobata cell suspension cultures.
METHOD: High performance liquid chromatography and plant tissue culture were
applied. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Cell growth and isoflavone accumulation were
significantly stimulated in P. lobata cell suspension cultures by the increase
of the sucrose concentration. Maintaining the pH value at the range over 5. 4 to
5. 8 was most suitable for isoflavone accumulation in P. lobata cell suspension
cultures. Cell dried weight and isoflavone accumulation decreased sharply with
the increase of the treated concentration of active carbon, while XAD-4
significantly stimulated cell growth and isoflavone accumulation.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17165578 [PubMed - in process]

9: Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Dec 6; [Epub ahead of print]

A Lupinoside prevented fatty acid induced inhibition of insulin sensitivity in
3T3 L1 adipocytes.

Dey D, Pal BC, Biswas T, Roy SS, Bandyopadhyay A, Mandal SK, Giri BB,
Bhattacharya S.

Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C.Mullick Road, Kolkata, 700032,
India.

The decrease in insulin sensitivity to target tissues or insulin resistance
leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus, an insidious disease threatening global
health. Numerous evidences made free fatty acids (FFAs) responsible for insulin
resistance and type 2 diabetes. We demonstrate here that the damage of insulin
acitivity by a free fatty acid, palmitate could be prevented by a lupinoside. An
incubation of 3T3 L1 adipocytes with a FFA i.e. palmitate inhibited insulin
stimulated uptake of (3)H-2 deoxyglucose (2 DOG) significantly. Addition of a
lupinoside purified from Pueraria tuberosa, lupinoside PA(4) (LPA(4)) strongly
prevented this inhibition. We then examined insulin signaling pathway where
palmitate significantly inhibited insulin stimulated phosphorylation of Insulin
receptor tyrosine kinase, IRS 1and PI3 kinase, PDK1 and Akt/PKB. LPA(4) rescued
this inhibition of signaling molecule by palmitate. Insulin mediated
translocation of Glut4, the glucose transporter in insulin target cells, was
effectively blocked by palmitate while, LPA(4) waived this block. Administration
of LPA(4) to nutritionally induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the
increase in plasma glucose. All these indicate LPA(4) to be a potentially
therapeutic agent for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

PMID: 17149545 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

10: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Dec;29(12):2432-5.

Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and
daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana.

Park EK, Shin J, Bae EA, Lee YC, Kim DH.

College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

To understand the relationship between the metabolites and estrogenic activity
of the main isoflavones puerarin and daidzin of the rhizome of Pueraria
thunbergiana (PT, family Leguminosae), PT and its isoflavones were transformed
by human intestinal bacteria and their estrogenic effects were investigated. All
human fecal specimens hydrolyzed puerarin and daidzin to daidzein, but their
hydrolyzing activities varied depending on the individuals. All intestinal
bacteria isolated from human also hydrolyzed daidzin to daidzein, but a few
bacteria transformed puerarin to daidzein. When the estrogenic effect of PT,
puerarin and daidzin was compared with those of their metabolites, the
metabolites more potently increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than PT,
puerarin and daidzin. The metabolite daidzein also potently increased
estrogen-response c-fos mRNA and PR protein expressions. These findings suggest
that intestinal bacteria, which can hydrolyze puerarin and/or daidzin, may
activate a potent estrogenic activity of PT.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17142977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Arch Pharm Res. 2006 Oct;29(10):821-5.

Constituents of the roots of Pueraria lobata inhibit formation of advanced
glycation end products (AGEs).

Kim JM, Lee YM, Lee GY, Jang DS, Bae KH, Kim JS.

Department of Herbal Pharmaceutical Development, Korea Institute of Oriental
Medicine, Daejeon 305-811, Korea.

Two isoflavone C-glucosides, puerarin (1) and PG-3 (2), a but-2-enolide,
(+/-)-puerol B (3), two isoflavone O-glucosides, daidzin (4) and genistin (5),
and three pterocarpans, (-)-medicarpin (6), (-)-glycinol (7) and (-)-tuberosin
(8), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the roots of Pueraria lobata, using an
in vitro bioassay based on the inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation
end products (AGEs) to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of
1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by 1D-
and 2D-NMR studies, and by comparison of these data with values in the
literature. All of the isolates (1-8) were evaluated for their inhibitory
activity on AGEs formation in vitro. Of these, puerarin (1), PG-3 (2), and
(+/-)-puerol B (3) exhibited more potent inhibitory activity than the positive
control aminoguanidine.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17121174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Maturitas. 2007 Mar 20;56(3):322-31. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, prevents bone loss in
orchidectomized rats.

Urasopon N, Hamada Y, Asaoka K, Cherdshewasart W, Malaivijitnond S.

Biological Science Ph.D. Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty
of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

OBJECTIVE: Estrogens and estrogen-like substances have been reported to play an
important role in male bone homeostasis and to prevent bone loss. Pueraria
mirifica (Leguminosae), a Thai herbal plant, containing a high amount of
phytoestrogens was a choice of interest for this study. We examined the effects
of crude P. mirifica on bone loss and influences on reproductive organs in male
rats. METHODS: Using fully mature and orchidectomized (ORX) rats, the effects of
0, 10, 100 and 1000mg/kgB.W./day of P. mirifica and 0.1mg/kgB.W./day of 17
alpha-ethinylestradiol (a positive control) were evaluated on bone mineral
density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) measured with a peripheral
Quantitative Computerized Tomography (pQCT) densitometry. RESULTS: Bone loss in
trabecular and cortical bones of the various sites of axial bone (fourth lumbar
vertebral body) and long bones (tibia and femur) after ORX was dose-dependently
prevented by P. mirifica. The effects were specific on bone types and sites. The
weights of the accessory sex organs, seminal vesicle and ventral prostrate
gland, which significantly decreased after 3-month of ORX, were not altered by
P. mirifica. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that P. mirifica treatment may be
useful to prevent an osteoporosis in elderly hypogonadism subjects without
influences on reproductive organs.

PMID: 17101247 [PubMed - in process]

13: Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Aug;29(8):816-8.

[Studies on the effect of extracts of several Chinese herbal medicines and other
medicines on alcohol dehydrogenase activity]

[Article in Chinese]

Li WZ, Lu J, Sun XY, Wang SL, Ni YM, Zhu WS.

College of Life Science and Technology of Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,
China. lwz@mail.tongji.edu.cn

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of water and alcohol extracts of several Chinese
herbal medicines and other medicines on alcohol dehydrogenase activity in order
to provide enzymology basis on new medicine. METHODS: Water or alcohol extracts
of Chinese herbal medicine and other medicine were tested on the effects of
alcohol dehydrogenase activity by Valle and Hoch method. RESULTS: Among them, 8
were found to have the effect of activation on alcohol dehydrogenase. They were
water extracts of Amomum kravanh and Pueraria flowers, the alcohol extracts of
Pueraria flowers, compound hepatcare Chinese medicine and compound Pueraria
medicine, L-cysteine, notoginseng saponin. Others had inhibiting action.
CONCLUSION: To decrease alcohol concentration in the body through activating the
activity of ADH may be one of the mechanisms for some traditional Chinese herbal
medicine in neutralizing the effect of alcohol drink.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17076243 [PubMed - in process]

14: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006 Aug;46(4):653-6.

[Primary study on acid tolerance mechanism of a wild aciduric Rhizobium strain
isolated from Pueraria lobata]

[Article in Chinese]

Gu JP, Zhang L, Wei SQ, Zhang Q, Fang DH.

College of Resource and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716,
China. gwping80@163.com

An aciduric Rhizobium strain, named as PR389, was isolated from the nodule of
wild Pueraria lobata which grew in yellow soil (pH 4.6) on the Jin-yun Mountain
in Bei-bei, Chong-qing city. The isolated strain, which could grow under pH 4.6
distinct from the optimal pH 6.5-7.5 for rhizobium, showed some typical features
of aciduric rhizobium. This was also confirmed by the proton flux assay.
Compared to the acid-sensitive Rhizobium strain PR21, the cell membrane of PR389
could hold back excessive H entering cell. This feature can protect PR389 from
harm of acid. In the test of acid tolerance, the aciduric ability of strain
PR389 under low acidic (pH 3.8) was restrained by antibiotic chloramphenicol. It
was speculated that special proteins in the cells of PR389 could be induced and
synthesized in acidic environment.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17037073 [PubMed - in process]

15: Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Dec 15;552(1-3):105-11. Epub 2006 Sep 14.

Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae, potentiates
endothelium-independent relaxation via the cyclic AMP pathway in porcine
coronary artery.

Yeung DK, Leung SW, Xu YC, Vanhoutte PM, Man RY.

Department of Pharmacology, 2/F Faculty of Medicine Building, University of Hong
Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medicinal herb Radix
puerariae, has been suggested to be useful in the management of various
cardiovascular disorders. The present study examined the effect of acute
exposure (30 min) to puerarin on vascular relaxation. Rings from porcine
coronary artery of either sex were used. The highest concentration of puerarin
(100 microM) produced a small but statistically significant relaxation of
U46619-contracted rings. Vascular relaxations were also studied in the presence
of lower concentrations of puerarin (0.1, 1 and 10 microM) which had no direct
relaxation effect. Puerarin enhanced vasorelaxation to endothelium-independent
relaxing agents, sodium nitroprusside and cromakalim. However, puerarin had no
effect on vasorelaxation induced by endothelium-dependent relaxing agents,
bradykinin and calcium ionophore A23187. The potentiating action of puerarin (10
microM) on sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was not affected by the
nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME;
300 microM), or by the disruption of the endothelium with Triton X-100. The
effect of puerarin was reversible following a washout period. The potentiating
effects were comparable with the 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic
AMP) analogues, 8-bromoadenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP; 10
muM) and Sp-isomer [S nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of adenosine-3',
5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Sp-cyclic AMPS; 3 microM), but not the
3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) analogue,
8-bromoguanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic GMP; 3 microM). The
cyclic AMP antagonist, Rp-isomer [R nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of
8-bromoadenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS; 10
microM), but not cyclic GMP antagonist, Rp-isomer of 8-bromoguanosine-3',
5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM), reversed the
effects of puerarin (10 microM) on the enhancement of vasorelaxation to sodium
nitroprusside. Our results demonstrated that puerarin enhanced sodium
nitroprusside-induced relaxation, possibly via the cyclic AMP-dependent pathway.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17027964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Sci China C Life Sci. 2006 Aug;49(4):379-89.

Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis in
Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells through a salicylic acid
(SA)-dependent and a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signal pathway.

Xu M, Dong J, Zhu M.

Department of Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035,
China. maojunxu@163.com

Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule in plant secondary
metabolite biosynthesis recently. In order to investigate the molecular basis of
NO signaling in elicitor-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis of plant
cells, we determined the contents of NO, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid
(JA), and puerarin in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells treated with
the elicitors prepared from cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. The results
showed that the fungal elicitor induced NO burst, SA accumulation and puerarin
production of P. thomsonii Benth. cells. The elicitor-induced SA accumulation
and puerarin production was suppressed by nitric oxide specific scavenger cPITO,
indicating that NO was essential for elicitor-induced SA and puerarin
biosynthesis in P. thomsonii Benth. cells. In transgenic NahG P. thomsonii
Benth. cells, the fungal elicitor also induced puerarin biosynthesis, NO burst,
and JA accumulation, though the SA biosynthesis was impaired. The
elicitor-induced JA accumulation in transgenic cells was blocked by cPITO, which
suggested that JA acted downstream of NO and its biosynthesis was controlled by
NO. External application of NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced
puerarin biosynthesis in transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, and the
NO-triggered puerarin biosynthesis was suppressed by JA inhibitors IBU and NDGA,
which indicated that NO induced puerarin production through a JA-dependent
signal pathway in the transgenic cells. Exogenous application of SA suppressed
the elicitor-induced JA biosynthesis and reversed the inhibition of IBU and NDGA
on elicitor-induced puerarin accumulation in transgenic cells, which indicated
that SA inhibited JA biosynthesis in the cells and that SA might be used as a
substitute for JA to mediate the elicitor- and NO-induced puerarin biosynthesis.
It was, therefore, concluded that NO might mediate the elicitor-induced puerarin
biosynthesis through SA- and JA-dependent signal pathways in wildtype P.
thomsonii Benth. cells and transgenic NahG cells respectively.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16989284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Addict Biol. 2006 Sep;11(3-4):356-73.

Modulation of high alcohol drinking in the inbred Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rat
strain: implications for treatment.

Overstreet DH, Rezvani AH, Cowen M, Chen F, Lawrence AJ.

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies & Department of Psychiatry, University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. dhover@med.unc.edu

The Fawn-Hooded rat (FH/Wjd) is an inbred alcohol-preferring rat strain, unlike
most of the other strains that were selectively bred for high alcohol intake and
preference. It was chosen for study some 16 years ago because of a reported
mutation that disrupted platelet serotonin function. Although the FH/Wjd rat has
high alcohol intake (>5 g/kg/day) and preference (>65%), interbreeding with an
alcohol-non-preferring inbred strain suggested that these measures are unrelated
to the serotonin abnormality. Similarly, the exaggerated immobility of the
FH/Wjd rats in the forced swim test did not correlate with the high alcohol
intake. Many compounds have been tested in the FH/Wjd rats after both acute and
chronic treatment and a substantial number of them have proved effective.
However, as the case with opiate antagonists, tolerance to the effects of the
drug can develop. An up-regulation of opioid receptors accompanied the chronic
treatment and this mechanism may account for the development of tolerance.
Tolerance to opiate antagonists has also been demonstrated in two of the
selectively bred alcohol-preferring rat lines, but it is unknown whether this
process may contribute to the relapses seen in individuals being treated with
naltrexone. Other drugs that reliably decrease alcohol intake in the FH/Wjd rats
include the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A receptor antagonist, amperozide, the mGlu5
receptor antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) and
herbal derivatives such as ibogaine, St. John's wort and kudzu extract. Thus,
studies in the FH/Wjd rat have led to the discovery of a wide variety of targets
for the development of novel agents to treat alcoholism. The fact that several
of these drugs were shown to reduce alcohol intake in some of the selectively
bred alcohol-preferring rat lines and/or alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys
increases our confidence that they are good candidates for further development.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

PMID: 16961764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jan;73(5):1143-9. Epub 2006 Sep 8.

One-pot synthesis of genistein from tyrosine by coincubation of genetically
engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

Katsuyama Y, Miyahisa I, Funa N, Horinouchi S.

Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.

For production of genistein from N-acetylcysteamine-attached p-coumarate
(p-coumaroyl-NAC) supplemented to the medium, a chalcone synthase (CHS) gene
from Glycyrrhiza echinata, a chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene from Pueraria lobata,
and an isoflavone synthase (IFS) gene from G. echinata were placed under the
control of the galactose-inducible GAL promoters in pESC vector and were
introduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When the recombinant yeast cells (0.5 g
wet weight) were used as "enzyme bags" and incubated at 30 degrees C for 48 h in
100 ml of the buffer containing galactose and 1 mM (265 mg/l) p-coumaroyl-NAC,
ca. 340 microg genistein/l was produced. Another system consisting of two enzyme
bags was also generated for the purpose of production of genistein from
tyrosine. One enzyme bag was an Escherichia coli cell containing a phenylalanine
ammonia-lyase gene from a yeast, a 4-coumarate/cinnamate:CoA ligase gene from
the actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), the CHS gene, and the CHI gene,
in addition to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum,
all of which were under the control of the
isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible T7 promoter, and thus producing
(S)-naringenin from tyrosine. The other enzyme bag was a S. cerevisiae cell
containing the IFS gene. Coincubation of the E. coli cells (0.5 g wet weight)
and S. cerevisiae cells (0.5 g wet weight) at 26 degrees C for 60 h in 20 ml of
the buffer containing 3 mM (543 mg/l) tyrosine as the starting substrate yielded
ca. 6 mg genistein/l.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16960736 [PubMed - in process]

19: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Sep;54(9):1315-7.

Puerariafuran, a new inhibitor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
isolated from the roots of Pueraria lobata.

Jang DS, Kim JM, Lee YM, Kim YS, Kim JH, Kim JS.

Department of Herbal Pharmaceutical Development, Korea Institute of Oriental
Medicine, 461-24 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-811, Korea.

A new 2-arylbenzofuran, puerariafuran (1), as well as three known compounds,
coumestrol (2), daidzein (3), and genistein (4), were isolated from a MeOH
extract of the roots of Pueraria lobata as active constituents, using an in
vitro bioassay based on the inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structure of 1 was determined by
spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by extensive 1D and 2D NMR
studies. All the isolates (1-4) were evaluated for the inhibitory activity on
AGEs formation in vitro.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16946543 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Jan 17;43(2):428-34. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

Major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica in
comparison with Pueraria lobata.

Cherdshewasart W, Subtang S, Dahlan W.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai
Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. cwichai@sc.chula.ac.th

Pueraria mirifica tubers collected from 28 out of 76 provinces of Thailand and
Pueraria lobata tubers collected from Guangzhou province, China were submitted
to HPLC analysis with the established gradient system comprising 1.5% acetic
acid and acetonitrile. Five major isoflavonoids, including puerarin, daidzin,
genistin, daidzein and genistein, were adopted as authentic standards. P.
mirifica tubers showed intra- as well as inter-provincial differences in
isoflavonoid and total isoflavonoid contents. The difference in both cases
should be mostly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In comparison
with P. lobata, P. mirifica population exhibited differences only with a lower
amount of daidzein.

PMID: 16930918 [PubMed - in process]

21: J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(6):543-8.

Pharmacokinetic profile of the isoflavone puerarin after acute and repeated
administration of a novel kudzu extract to human volunteers.

Penetar DM, Teter CJ, Ma Z, Tracy M, Lee DY, Lukas SE.

Behavioral Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA
02478, USA. dpenetar@mclean.harvard.edu

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of
puerarin, the major isoflavone found in a kudzu (Pueraria lobata) extract after
acute and repeated administration. METHODS: Participants were given either
single or repeated doses of kudzu extract, and blood samples were collected for
either 8 or 72 hours for subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses of puerarin.
RESULTS: Using WinNonlin pharmacokinetic data analysis software, puerarin was
found to be rapidly absorbed via the oral route, reach peak levels at 2 hours,
and have a half-life of approximately 4.3 hours. The elimination half-life was
not significantly altered after repeated administration. CONCLUSIONS: A
formulation of kudzu extract delivers a large amount of the principal isoflavone
in a rapid manner. The elimination rate constants and the mono-exponential
decline in blood levels suggest that a one compartment model adequately explains
how puerarin is handled by the body. Three times a day dosing is recommended as
accumulation will not occur, and plasma levels remain at levels that are
biologically active, even 8 hours after the last steady-state dose.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 16884345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: J Med Assoc Thai. 2005 Jun;88 Suppl 1:S21-9.

Effects of Pueraria mirifica on vascular function of ovariectomized rabbits.

Wattanapitayakul SK, Chularojmontri L, Srichirat S.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University,
Sukhumvit 23, Wattana, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. suvara@swu.ac.th

Estrogen stimulates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and attenuates
endothelial dysfunction in ischemia/repurfusion and menopause. Recent studies
have shown that phytoestrogens from dietary sources improve endothelial function
and reduce cardiovascular risks. The Thai medicinal plant Pueraria mirifica (PM)
contains many potent phytoestrogens including miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol but
no study on vascular function has been established. Ground powder of PM was
orally given to ovariectomized White New Zealand rabbits (OVX + PM group) (n =
4) weighing 3.2-4.0 kg at the dose of 100 mg/kg for 90 days. Saline-treated
ovariectomized rabbits were assigned as a control group (OVX group) (n = 5). At
the end of treatment thoracic aorta was isolated for functional evaluation.
Maximal relaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh) was significantly increased
(24%) with 3.5-fold decrease in EC50 while no change in relaxant response to
sodium nitroprusside was observed Minimal and maximal responses to
17beta-estradiol (E2) were increased in the OVX + PM group and L-NAME (100 mM)
attenuated Emax of E2. PM significantly decreased maximal contractile responses
to norepinephrine (NE), but no change in EC50 was observed. In addition to
vascular study, the authors found no significant alteration in serum
cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, HDL, ALT AST alkaline phosphatase, and lipid
peroxidation in OVX + PM rabbits. These data demonstrate that PM (100 mg/kg/d)
improved endothelial function through NO-dependent pathway and increased
response to E2 while sensitivity to NE was reduced. In addition, it had no
impact on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and ALP activities. PM is a potential
source of phytoestrogens for postmenopausal women to improve cardiovascular
function or reduce cardiovascular risks.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16862667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: J Environ Biol. 2006 Jan;27(1):21-6.

Production of puerarin and isoflavones in cell suspension cultures of Pueraria
lobata (Willd.): effects of medium supplementation with casein hydrolysate and
coconut milk.

Li L, Zhang CR.

College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou,
Guangdong-510631, China. liling@scnu.edu.cn

Callus induced from leaf explants of Pueraria lobata seedlings were suspended in
Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1
mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 30 g l(-1) sucrose.
The effects of coconut milk and casein hydrolysate (CH) on cell growth and
yields of puerarin and isoflavones in cells suspension were studied. The
contents of total isoflavones and puerarin in suspension cultures were
determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC. Coconut milk (10%, filter sterilized)
decreased the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation of total isoflavones,
while 0.2% CH promoted the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation and
release of puerarin and total isoflavones. The total yield of puerarin and
isoflavones were 34% and 40.8% higher than in the control, respectively. The
optimum medium for cell cultures of leaves of P. lobata seedlings was B5 liquid
medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D, 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA, 0.5
mg l(-1) kinetin and 20 mg l(-1) CH. The procedure use is a potentially useful
for the production of isoflavones.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16850870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Plant Cell Rep. 2006 Dec;25(12):1387-91. Epub 2006 Jul 14.

Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana
(kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

Kirakosyan A, Kaufman PB, Chang SC, Warber S, Bolling S, Vardapetyan H.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0686,
USA. pbk@umich.edu

A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine
(Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin,
genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed
quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4,
and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the
production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the
production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than
the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl
conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold,
respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone
constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed
by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates,
daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in
control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are
observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to
these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot
rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control
levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations
on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria
montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 16841218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):38-45. Epub 2006 Apr 28.

KIOM-79 inhibits LPS-induced iNOS gene expression by blocking NF-kappaB/Rel and
p38 kinase activation in murine macrophages.

Jeon YJ, Li MH, Lee KY, Kim JS, You HJ, Lee SK, Sohn HM, Choi SJ, Koh JW, Chang
IY.

College of Medicine, Chosun University, 375 Susukdong, Kwangju 501-709, Republic
of Korea.

We demonstrate that KIOM-79, combined extracts obtained from Magnolia
officinalis, Pueraria lobata, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Euphorbia pekinensis,
inhibits LPS-induced expression of iNOS gene in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment of
RAW 264.7 cells with KIOM-79 inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production in
a dose-related manner. Immunohisto-chemical staining of iNOS and RT-PCR analysis
showed that the decrease of NO was due to the inhibition of iNOS gene
expression. Immunostaining of p65, EMSA, and reporter gene assay showed that
KIOM-79 inhibited NF-kappa/Rel nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and
transcriptional activation, respectively. Western immunoblot analysis of p38
kinase showed KIOM-79 significantly inhibited the phosphoylation of p38 kinase
which is important in the regulation of iNOS gene expression. Collectively, this
series of experiments indicates that KIOM inhibits iNOS gene expression by
blocking NF-kappa/Rel and p38 kinase signaling. Due to the critical role that NO
release plays in mediating inflammatory responses, the inhibitory effects of
KIOM-79 on iNOS suggest that KIOM-79 may represent a useful anti-inflammatory
agent.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16806764 [PubMed - in process]

26: J Reprod Dev. 2006 Aug;52(4):537-42. Epub 2006 Jun 24.

Effect of Pueraria mirifica on the sexual skin coloration of aged menopausal
cynomolgus monkeys.

Trisomboon H, Malaivijitnond S, Cherdshewasart W, Watanabe G, Taya K.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University,
Bangkok, Thailand.

To investigate the estrogenic effect of Pueraria mirifica (PM), a Thai herbal
plant that contains many phytoestrogens, sexual skin coloration was studied in
cynomolgus monkeys. Aged menopausal monkeys were divided into three groups. Each
group (n=3) was fed 10, 100, or 1,000 mg of PM daily. The treatment schedule was
divided into three periods, a 30-day pre-treatment period, 90-day treatment
period, and 60-day post-treatment period. The results show that the sexual skin
exhibited reddish coloration within 24 h after PM-treatment and remained this
way for the first half of the PM-feeding period. The changes in sexual skin
coloration were not dose-dependent. The present results indicate that PM had
estrogenic action by increasing reddish sexual skin coloration in aged
menopausal monkeys.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16799265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jun 28;54(13):4907-12.

Both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens modify favorably the blood lipoprotein
profile in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

Guan L, Yeung SY, Huang Y, Chen ZY.

Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Food and Nutritional Sciences Program
of the Department of Biochemistry, and Department of Physiology, The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China.

The present study compared the hypolipidemic activity of kudzu phytoestrogens
with that of soybean phytoestrogen in estrogen- and androgen-deficient hamsters.
In the first experiment, ovariectomized hamsters (n = 37) were randomly divided
into four groups (n = 9-10 each group). The first group was the control group,
whereas the second group had the time-releasing estradiol-17beta subcutaneous
(pellet) implants as a positive control. The third and fourth groups were orally
administered soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts (30 mg/kg of body weight)
per day. In the second experiments, the first group of male hamsters (n = 9)
received a sham operation, whereas the other three groups of male hamsters (n =
9 each) were castrated. The castrated control group received orally distilled
water, whereas the second and third castrated groups were orally given 30 mg/kg
soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts. The results for the first experiment
showed that the ovariectomized hamsters orally given soybean and kudzu
phytoestrogen extracts had significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (TC)
and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with HDL cholesterol
(HDL-C) being unaffected. The data from the second experiment demonstrated that
administration of soybean but not kudzu phytoestrogen extracts decreased
significantly serum TC. However, administration of kudzu phytoestrogens caused
redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins, leading to a significant
decrease in the ratio of non-HDL-C to HDL-C. It was concluded that both soybean
and kudzu phytoestrogens could modify favorably lipoprotein profiles in
ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

PMID: 16787047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Apr;31(7):577-9.

[Protective effect of pueraria flavonoid on the cerebral ischemic reperfusion
injury in rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang PY, Wang HP, Li GW.

Department of Neurobiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.

OBJECTIVE: To research the protective effect of pueraria flavonoid on the
cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. METHOD: Using the middle cerebral artery
occlusion model (MCAO) in rats, we investigated the influence of pueraria
flavonoid on the brain water content, the infarct volume, the activities of SOD,
and the content of MDA. RESULT: Pueraria Flavonoid could obviously reduce the
brain water content and the infract volume in MCAO, increase the activities of
SOD, and decrease the content of MDA in the cerebral ischemia- reinfusion model
of rats. CONCLUSION: Pueraria has the function of scavenging free radicals and
the protective effect on ischemic brain tissue.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16780163 [PubMed - in process]

29: J Cosmet Sci. 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):201-2.

Botanicals from traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and their potential as
natural anti-irritants in cosmetic applications.

Vielhaber G, Meyer I, Joppe H, Franke H, Herrmann M.

Symrise GmbH & Co. KG, Muhlenfeldstr. 1, D-37603, Holzminden, Germany.

PMID: 16758567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Jun;29(6):1202-6.

Estrogenic effect of main components kakkalide and tectoridin of puerariae flos
and their metabolites.

Shin JE, Bae EA, Lee YC, Ma JY, Kim DH.

College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University.

To understand the relationship between the metabolism and estrogenic activity of
kakkalide and tectoridin, main isoflavones in the flower of Pueraria
thunbergiana (family Leguminosae), these isoflavones and their metabolites by
human intestinal microflora as well as their estrogenic effects were
investigated. All human fecal specimens metabolized kakkalide and tectoridin.
All isolated kakkalide-hydrolyzing intestinal bacteria also hydrolyzed kakkalide
and tectoridin to irisolidone and tectorigenin, respectively. When the
estrogenic effects of kakkalide and tectoridin were compared with those of their
metabolites irisolidone and tectorigenin, the metabolites more potently
increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than kakkalide and tectoridin. These
metabolites also potently induced estrogen-response c-fos and pS2 mRNA
expression. These results suggest that kakkalide and tectoridin may be
metabolized mainly to irisolidone and tectorigenin, respectively, by intestinal
microflora in the intestines, and which may be subsequently absorbed into the
blood where they can express their estrogenic effect.

PMID: 16755017 [PubMed - in process]

31: Ann Chim. 2006 Jan-Feb;96(1-2):117-24.

Separation and determination of isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples by
high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE).

Fang C, Wan X, Tan H, Jiang C.

Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education and
Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui,
China.

Pueraria lobata is a rich source of isoflavonoids. The detection and
identification of isoflavonoid components from root, stem, leaf, callus and cell
samples, is very important for the best, safest and most efficacious use of
kudzu as a medicinal plant, and for the studies on quantitative analysis in the
secondary metabolism of isoflavonoids. In this paper, a simple, rapid and
precise high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method with diode
array detection (DAD) has been developed for separation and determination of
isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples. The isoflavonoids could be well
separated within 15 min in a 40 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of
15kV in a 30 mmol L(-1) borax buffer (pH9.29), and this proposed method
demonstrated excellent reproducibility and accuracy with relative standard
deviations of less than 5% for isoflavonoid content (n = 5) of different kudzu
samples. The relationship between peak areas and isoflavone concentrations, in a
specified working range with linear response, was determined by first-order
polynomial regression over the range 0.05-0.5 mg mL(-1) for puerarin and 2.5-50
microg mL(-1) for 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin and daidzein, respectively, and
quantitative evaluation of those four main isoflavonoid components was
determined by ultraviolet absorption at lambda = 192 nm. The differences were
also illustrated by comparison of the determination of isoflavonoid components
from kudzu root, stem, leaf samples and plant tissue cultures in vitro.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16734027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct 11;107(3):354-60. Epub 2006 Apr 6.

Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich
herb.

Malaivijitnond S, Chansri K, Kijkuokul P, Urasopon N, Cherdshewasart W.

Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn
University, Phyathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Suchinda.m@chula.ac.th

To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic
phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria
mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized
rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate
(1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria
mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily
and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or
post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did
not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate
induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of
post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment
and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of
Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the
cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal
cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of
phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two
advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the
recovery after the cessation of treatment.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16730147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Mar;31(6):504-6.

[Protective effect of puerarin on stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang FW, Li J, Hu ZL, Xie YY.

Institute of Materia Medica, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250062,
China. wangfuwww@tom.com

OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of puerarin on stress-induced gastric
mucosal injury in rats. METHOD: The model of gastric ulcer was established by
restraint plus water-immersion stress in rats. Gastric motility was monitored by
the method of "Gas Balloon". Gastric mucosal blood flow was recorded by
laser-Doppler flowmetry. Colorimetric method was used to determine the content
of NO and ET in gastric mucosal tissue. Meantime the pathologic changes of
gastric mucosal was examined. RESULT: Puerarin could significantly attenuated
gastric mucosal damage induced by water-immersion stress, inhibited gastric
motility, specially decreased the index of gastric motility and percentage of
gastric contraction time and numbers of violent contraction. The gastric mucosal
blood flow and NO level in gastric mucosal were enhanced, while ET level was
reduced by puerarin. The degree of tissue damage in gastric mucosal was also
significantly attenuated after administration fo puerarin. CONCLUSION: Puerarin
exerts a significant protective effect on water-immersion stress-induced gastric
mucosal damage by relaxing the vessels, increasing NO level in gastric mucosal,
increasing regional gastric mucosal blood flow and inhibiting gastric motility.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16722386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Mar;31(6):490-3.

[Puerarin suppresses the proliferation of vscular smooth muscule cells and c-fos
and bcl-2 protein expression]

[Article in Chinese]

Xu YZ, Gao Y, Li PZ, Wang NF, Xu HY, Tong GX.

The First People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310006, China.
qqyzxu@zj165.com

OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of puerarin on the proliferation of vascular
smooth muscle cells(VSMC) induced by thrombin (T) and the effect of puerarin on
the c-fos and bcl-2 protein expression. METHOD: Cell number and cell cycle
analysis using flow cytometry were adopted as two different indicators of
effects on proliferation of VSMC. Western blot was used to indicate the changes
of c-fos and bcl-2 protein after 24 h of treatment of T and puerarin. RESULT:
1.5 x 10(-5) - 1.5 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) puerarin could significantly suppress
this stimulation of VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by T. Western
blot demonstrated that after 24 hour of treatment with T and puerarin, T could
significantly increase c-fos and bcl-2 protein and 1.5 x 10(-5) - 1.5 x 10(-3)
mol x L(-1) puerain could significantly suppress this increase. CONCLUSION:
puerarin can suppress the proliferation and DNA synthesis of VSMC promoted by T.
This inhibitory effects of puerarin are closely related with the suppression of
c-fos and bcl-2 protein.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16722382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: J Chromatogr A. 2006 Jul 14;1121(1):114-9. Epub 2006 May 22.

High-performance thin-layer chromatographic fingerprints of isoflavonoids for
distinguishing between Radix Puerariae Lobate and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

Chen SB, Liu HP, Tian RT, Yang DJ, Chen SL, Xu HX, Chan AS, Xie PS.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Department
of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China.

The roots of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth have been
officially recorded in all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia under the same
monograph 'Gegen' (Radix Puerariae, RP). However, in its 2005 edition, the two
species were separated into both individual monographs, namely 'Gegen' (Radix
Puerariae Lobatae, RPL) and 'Fenge' (Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, RPT),
respectively, due to their obvious content discrepancy of puerarin, the major
active constituent. In present paper, the fingerprint of high-performance
thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combining digital scanning profiling was
developed to identify and distinguish the both species in detail. The unique
properties of the HPTLC fingerprints were validated by analyzing ten batches of
Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii samples, respectively. The common pattern of
the HPTLC images of the roots of Pueraria spp. and the respective different
ratios of the chemical distribution can directly discern the two species. The
corresponding digital scanning profiles provided an easy way for quantifiable
comparison among the samples. Obvious difference in ingredient content and HPTLC
patterns of the two species questioned their bio-equivalence and explained that
recording both species separately in the current edition of Chinese
Pharmacopoeia (2005 edition) is reasonable due to not only the content of major
constituent, puerarin, but also the peak-to-peak distribution in the fingerprint
and integration value of the total components. Furthermore, the HPTLC
fingerprint is also suitable for rapid and simple authentication and comparison
of the subtle difference among samples with identical plant resource but
different geographic locations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16714027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Feb;41(2):171-4.

[Protective effects of hydroxyethylpuerarin against brain astrocytes injury
induced by hydrogen peroxide]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang B, Wei XB, Liu HQ, Wang LX, Sun R, Zhang XM.

Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan
250012, China.

AIM: To study the protective effects of hydroxyethylpuerarin against the injury
of astrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). METHODS: Experiments were
performed with cells from passage 4. Plasma membrane integrity was measured by
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The occurrence of apoptosis was measured by
flow cytometry. The glutamate uptake of astrocytes was studied with
[3H]-glutamate incorporation. Intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity
and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assessed by automatic biochemistry
analyzer. RESULTS: Compared with H2O2 injured group, the occurrence of
apoptosis, levels of LDH release and intracellular MDA of astrocytes reduced in
hydroxyethylpuerarin pre-treated groups, but the glutamate uptake and
intracellular SOD activity of astrocytes increased. CONCLUSION:
Hydroxyethylpuerarin could reduce the occurrence of apoptosis and improve
neurotrophic function of astrocytes, which may be related with its antioxidant
effects during oxidative stress.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16671550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Endocrine. 2006 Feb;29(1):129-34.

The estrogenic effect of Pueraria mirifica on gonadotrophin levels in aged
monkeys.

Trisomboon H, Malaivijitnond S, Watanabe G, Cherdshewasart W, Taya K.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University,
Bangkok 10110, Thailand.

We investigated the effect of Pueraria mirifica (PM) on gonadotrophin and
estradiol levels in aged animals; nine menopausal cynomolgus monkeys were
divided into three groups. Each group (n = 3) was fed with 10, 100, and 1000
mg/d of PM for 90 d. PM-10 induced the decrease of follicle stimulating hormone
(FSH) levels on d 15-90 in one out of three monkeys. PM-100 and PM-1000
decreased FSH levels of all monkeys throughout the treatment period. After the
treatment period, FSH levels continued to decrease for 5 and 10-20 d in PM-100
and PM-1000, respectively, and the levels rebounded in all groups thereafter.
PM-10 decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels throughout the treatment period
in one out of three monkeys and returned to the pretreatment levels immediately
after stopping treatment. PM-100 and PM-1000 prominently decreased LH levels
between d 10 and 90 during treatment and persisted until d 15-25 and d 20-30 for
PM-100 and PM-1000, respectively, during the post-treatment period. Serum LH
levels rebounded after returning to pre-treatment levels in a dose-dependent
manner. Estradiol levels tended to decrease during the treatment period in all
groups. The daily feeding of PM suppressed gonadotrophin levels in aged
menopausal monkeys based on dose. Moreover, they can be recovered, and there is
a direct correlation between dosage and recovery time. PM may be effective as an
alternative medicine in menopausal women because the effects are not permanent.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16622301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: J Chromatogr Sci. 2006 Feb;44(2):57-63.

Identification of isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples by high-performance
liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass
spectrometry.

Fang C, Wan X, Tan H, Jiang C.

Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education and
Ministry of Agriculture, P.R. China.

Pueraria lobata is a rich source of isoflavonoids. The detection and
identification of isoflavonoid components from Pueraria radix (RP), callus and
cell cultures, is very important for the safest and most effective use of kudzu
as a medicinal plant, and for the studies on quantitative analysis and secondary
metabolism of isoflavonoids in vitro cultures. Liquid chromatography is coupled
with negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass
spectrometry (MS-MS), and photodiode array detection is used to characterize and
detect isoflavonoids in root, callus, and cell samples of P. lobata.
Characteristic product ions of aglycones, O-glucosides, and C-glucosides were
obtained from the full-scan ESI-MS chromatography of the major peaks and the
MS-MS spectra of the protonated ions. Five major components of puerarin,
daidzin-6"-O-acetylester, genistin-6"-O-malonylester, biochanin
A-7-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonylester, and daidzein are detected and identified from
the methanolic extract of P. lobata callus cultures. The major isoflavonoid
components of P. lobata cell suspension cultures are identified as puerarin,
daidzin, daidzin-6"-O-acetylester, genistin-6"-O-malonylester, biochanin
A-7-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonylester, genistein-8-C-glucoside-6"-O-malonylester,
and daidzein, on the basis of ESI-MS and MS-MS spectra analysis. Likewise,
puerarin, daidzin, genistein-6"-O-malonylester, 3'-methoxypuerarin, and daidzein
are detected and identified from RP. Of those isoflavonoid components detected,
daidzin-6"-O-acetylester is a new isoflavonoid glucoside and is for the first
time detected from P. lobata cultures in vitro.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16620495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):899-905.

Differential effects of isoflavones, from Astragalus membranaceus and Pueraria
thomsonii, on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and adipocyte
differentiation in vitro.

Shen P, Liu MH, Ng TY, Chan YH, Yong EL.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine,
National University of Singapore, 119074, Singapore.

Compounds that target the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARalpha
and PPARgamma are used to correct dyslipidemia and to restore glycemic balance,
respectively. Because the majority of diabetic patients suffer from atherogenic
lipid abnormalities, in addition to insulin resistance, ligands are required
that can activate both PPARalpha and PPARgamma. In this study, we used chimeric
PPARalpha/gamma reporter-gene bioassays to screen herbal extracts with purported
antidiabetic properties. Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus and Pueraria
thomsonii significantly activated PPARalpha and PPARgamma. Bioassay-guided
fractionation resulted in the isolation of the isoflavones, formononetin, and
calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus, and daidzein from Pueraria thomsonii as
the PPAR-activating compounds. We investigated the effects of these and 2 common
isoflavones, genistein and biochanin A, using chimeric and full-length PPAR
constructs in vitro. Biochanin A and formononectin were potent activators of
both PPAR receptors (EC50 = 1-4 micromol/L) with PPARalpha/PPARgamma activity
ratios of 1:3 in the chimeric and almost 1:1 in the full-length assay,
comparable to those observed for synthetic dual PPAR-activating compounds under
pharmaceutical development. There was a subtle hierarchy of PPARalpha/gamma
activities, indicating that biochanin A, formononetin, and genistein were more
potent than calycosin and daidzein in chimeric as well as full-length receptor
assays. At low doses, only biochanin A and formononetin, but not genistein,
calycosin, or daidzein, activated PPARgamma-driven reporter-gene activity and
induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our data suggest the potential
value of isoflavones, especially biochanin A and their parent botanicals, as
antidiabetic agents and for use in regulating lipid metabolism.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16549448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Langmuir. 2006 Mar 14;22(6):2827-31.

Easy replication of Pueraria Lobata toward hierarchically ordered porous
gamma-Al2O3.

Li C, He J.

Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and
Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chaoyangqu Datunlu Jia 3, Beijing
100101, China.

Hierarchically ordered porous alumina was prepared via a facile
immersion-fuming-calcination process using Pueraria lobata as template. The
as-prepared alumina inherited nearly all morphological features of the template,
as shown by SEM observations. It also contains abundant mesopores based on
nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The crystalline phase of the
as-prepared alumina was ascertained to be gamma-alumina by analyzing its XRD
pattern. Pt nanoparticles were in situ synthesized in the gamma-alumina matrix
and annealed at different temperatures in N(2) atmosphere. TEM observations
showed that Pt nanoparticles supported by the as-prepared alumina have
significantly high thermal stability.

PMID: 16519490 [PubMed]

41: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2005 Nov;21(6):1003-8.

[Effects of sucrose and light on the growth and production of secondary
metabolites in Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots]

[Article in Chinese]

He HJ, Liang P, Shi HP.

Guangdong Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life
Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

Effects of sucrose concentrations and light on the growth and production of
total isoflavones and puerarin in Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots cultured
onto solid MS media supplemented with 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% sucrose,
respectively, were investigated. The results showed that among the sucrose
concentrations tested, 3% sucrose in the medium enhanced the growth and
stimulated accumulation of total isoflavones and puerarin in P. phaseoloides
hairy roots, After cultured for 20 days, the biomass of hairy roots reached 0.48
g (DW dry weight)/flask and its contents of total isoflavones and puerarin were
25.44 mg/g (DW) and 11.64 mg/g (DW), respectively. In comparison with 3%
sucrose, the dry weight proliferation of hairy roots cultured with 5% sucrose
was increased by 7.0%, while cultured with 1%, 7% and 9% sucrose, the dry weight
proliferation of hairy roots was decreased by 62.4%, 42.8% and 65.3%, their
total isoflavones content was decreased by 57.4%, 13% and 33.4% and their
puerarin content was decreased by 47.9%, 15.8% and 35.1%; but their content of
total soluble sugars was increased 0.52, 1.45 and 1.54 times, respectively.
Compared with hairy roots in blue light and white light, the biomass of hairy
roots cultured in the dark for 30 days was 0.83 g (DW)/flask and was increased
by 37.1% and 23.3%, respectively. The content of total isoflavones in hairy
roots cultured in white light was as much as 1.15 times and 1.19 times that in
blue light and in the dark, respectively. It was also observed that hairy roots
cultured in blue light and white light partly became light green and that blue
light could inhibit accumulation of puerarin in hairy roots and the puerarin
content in hairy root cultured in white light and in the dark were 1.61 times
and 1.52 times that in blue light, respectively.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16468362 [PubMed - in process]

42: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 6;104(3):345-50. Epub 2006 Feb 7.

Puerariae radix promotes differentiation and mineralization in human
osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

Huh JE, Yang HR, Park DS, Choi DY, Baek YH, Cho EM, Cho YJ, Kang-Il K, Kim DY,
Lee JD.

Oriental Medicine Research Center for Bone & Joint Disease, Kyung Hee
University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdaemungu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Puerariae radix (PR) is a traditional medicine herb used for enhancing body
resistance against various diseases. The aim of this study was to identify
whether Puerariae radix extract induces osteogenic activity in human
osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Puerariae radix had no effect on the viability of
osteoblastic cells, and dose-dependently increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
activity. Puerariae radix markedly increased mRNA expression for vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and type
I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells. Extracellular accumulation of proteins such
as VEGF and Col I was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Also, Puerariae
radix significantly induced mineralization in the culture of SaOS-2 cells. In
conclusion, this study showed that Puerariae radix had no effect on viability,
but enhanced ALP activity, VEGF, bone matrix proteins such as OCN, OPN, and Col
I, and mineralization in SaOS-2 cells. These results propose that Puerariae
radix can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation, and may
possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16455216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36 Suppl 4:238-41.

Mutagenicity of Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabandhu and antimutagenicity
of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn.

Saenphet K, Kantaoop P, Saenphet S, Aritajat S.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200,
Thailand. K_Saenphet@yahoo.com

Thunbergia laurifolia Linn has been reputed to have antitoxic effects for all
toxic substances. In this present study, we evaluated its effect against the
mutagenicity induced by aqueous extracts from Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw &
Suvatabundhu in male rats. The formation of micronuclei in polychromatic
erythrocytes was induced by oral administration of an aqueous extract of P.
mirifica at the doses of 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg to the rats for 30 days. The
results were that the extracts of P. mirifica at doses of 600 and 800 mg/kg
acted as a mutagenic agent by inducing higher frequencies of micronuclei as
compared to the controls. For the antimutagenic test, P. mirifica extract at a
dose of 600 mg/kg (minimal effective dose) was mixed with fresh and dried
extracts of T. laurifolia in proportions of 7:3 and 1:1, respectively. The
results of 4-week-treatment indicated that aqueous extracts of T. laurifolia,
prepared by both fresh and dry methods, could significantly inhibit the
induction of micronuclei as induced by P. mirifica. It could be concluded from
the results that, under certain circumstances, T. laurifolia exhibits a
significant antimutagenic activity. The use of P. mirifica and T. laurifolia as
fusion herbal medicines is suggested.

PMID: 16438216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36 Suppl 4:167-75.

Three indigenous Thai medicinal plants for control of Aedes aegypti and Culex
quinquefasciatus.

Lapcharoen P, Apiwathnasorn C, Komalamisra N, Dekumyoy P, Palakul K, Rongsriyam
Y.

Insecticide Research Unit, Department of Medical Entomology, Faculty of Tropical
Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. neparichart@yahoo.com

The potential larvicidal activity and insect growth regulator (IGR) properties
of three selected indigenous medicinal Thai plants were tested against two
species of mosquito with special reference to the late 3rd and early 4th instar
larvae (L3 and L4, respectively). In case of larvicidal activity, Thevetia
peruviana was the most potent, followed by Pueraria mirifica, and Butea superba
was the least effective. In all cases, the late 3rd instar was more susceptible
than the early 4th instar larvae, and the 48-hours exposure yielded more potent
larvicidal activity than 24-hours exposure. However, at sublethal dosages, both
P. mirifica and B. superba showed some dispersed effects interfering with
ecdysis. A variety of toxic effects were observed and recorded in eight
categories according to the stage of metamorphosis when death occurred. P.
mirifica rendered the main deleterious effects in the pupa-adult period in both
instar of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas B. superba showed
highest effect in black-pupa period of the late 3rd instar larval stage. The
results were reversed for the early 4th instar larvae of both species of
mosquito as the main effect appeared in the pupa-adult category. The overall
results indicated that T. peruviana did not show any IGR properties; whereas, P.
mirifica and B. superba seemed to exhibit the juvenile hormone type activity
which resulted in abnormal death at various stages of development. B. superba
was more promising than P. mirifica, and Ae. aegypti was about 2 times more
susceptible than Cx. quinquefasciatus. In addition, L3 was always more
susceptible than L4 with both mosquito species.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16438204 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jan;70(1):107-11.

Daidzein activates choline acetyltransferase from MC-IXC cells and improves
drug-induced amnesia.

Heo HJ, Suh YM, Kim MJ, Choi SJ, Mun NS, Kim HK, Kim E, Kim CJ, Cho HY, Kim YJ,
Shin DH.

Jeonnam Innovation Agency, Jeonnam, Korea.

The choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activator, which enhances cholinergic
transmission via an augmentation of the enzymatic production of acetylcholine
(ACh), is an important factor in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Methanolic extracts from Pueraria thunbergiana exhibited an activation effect
(46%) on ChAT in vitro. Via the sequential isolation of Pueraria thunbergiana,
the active component was ultimately identified as daidzein
(4',7-dihydroxy-isoflavone). In order to investigate the effects of daidzein
from Pueraria thunbergiana on scopolamine-induced impairments of learning and
memory, we conducted a series of in vivo tests. Administration of daidzein (4.5
mg/kg body weight) to mice was shown significantly to reverse
scopolamine-induced amnesia, according to the results of a Y-maze test.
Injections of scopolamine into mice resulted in impaired performance on Y-maze
tests (a 37% decreases in alternation behavior). By way of contrast, mice
treated with daidzein prior to the scopolamine injections were noticeably
protected from this performance impairment (an approximately 12%-21% decrease in
alternation behavior). These results indicate that daidzein might play a role in
acetylcholine biosynthesis as a ChAT activator, and that it also ameliorates
scopolamine-induced amnesia.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16428827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: J Chromatogr A. 2006 Feb 24;1107(1-2):59-69. Epub 2006 Jan 18.

Determination of isoflavones in dietary supplements containing soy, Red Clover
and kudzu: extraction followed by basic or acid hydrolysis.

Delmonte P, Perry J, Rader JI.

Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, Center for
Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park,
MD 20740, USA. pierluigi.delmote@cfsan.fda.gov

Isoflavones are phytochemicals found in many plants. Because of their structural
similarity to beta-estradiol, health benefits of isoflavones have been evaluated
in age-related and hormone-dependent diseases. Dietary supplement preparations
contain extracts from soy, Red Clover and kudzu. Soy products contain primarily
genistein, daidzein, and glycitein, while Red Clover products contain primarily
formononetin and biochanin A. Kudzu extracts contain puerarin and daidzein among
other components. Previous methods of analysis focused on the determination of
isoflavones from a single botanical source, while dietary supplements are often
a blend of extracts from different plants. We developed a method for the
analysis of isoflavones in dietary supplements regardless of their botanical
composition, using HPLC-PDA because of its applicability to routine analysis.
Isoflavones are found as free compounds, glucoside derivatives,
6''-O-malonyl-beta-d-glucoside and 6''-O-acetyl-beta-d-glucoside derivatives. In
this study, the samples were extracted at room temperature with 50:50 (v/v)
MeCN/water, and then analyzed before and after hydrolyzing the isoflavones by
acid or basic digestion. 2'-Methoxy-flavone and 6-methoxy-flavone were used as
internal standards and were added together to every sample. Daidzein, glycitein,
genistein, puerarin, calycosin, pratensein, pseudobaptigenin, formononetin,
biochanin A and prunetin were among the isoflavones determined.

PMID: 16413562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2005 Sep;25(9):1507-9.

[Determination of copper, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium in pueraria lobata
ohwi by FAAS]

[Article in Chinese]

Han P, Liu LE, Liu J, Zhang HQ, Wu YM, Wu YJ, Yu F, Wu DS.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, USA.

The samples of pueraria lobata ohwi were digested by HNO3 + HClO4. Copper, zinc,
iron, calcium and magnesium in pueraria lobata ohwi from Da Bieshan were
successfully determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). The
results showed that there are rich grand elements, such as Ca and Mg, and
profitable elements, such as trace elements Cu, Zn and Fe, in pueraria lobata
ohwi. The content sequence of metal elements is as follows: Copper: leaves >
flowers > rattans > roots; Zinc: leaves > flowers > rattans > roots; Iron: roots
> rattans > leaves > flowers; Calcium: leaves > roots > flowers > rattans;
Magnesium: flowers > roots > leaves > rattans. The results provided useful data
for discussing the relationship between the metal elements in pueraria lobata
and hypertension diseases. ohwi and the cure for cerebrovascular diseases.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16379303 [PubMed - in process]

48: Drug Alcohol Rev. 2005 Nov;24(6):525-36.

Comment in:
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2005 Nov;24(6):473.

Natural medicines for alcoholism treatment: a review.

Xu BJ, Zheng YN, Sung CK.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and
Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejon, South Korea.

Alcoholism is a serious problem throughout the world. The development of
alcoholism remedies have medical, social and economical significance. In view of
the pitfalls of psychological dependence and adverse behavioural effects of
synthetic drugs, the development of low toxicity and high efficiency medicines
derived from natural products exhibits expansive market prospects. Based on
these considerations, we summarize briefly folk application of traditional
hangover remedies and clinical application of herbal complex and patent
medicines for alcoholism treatment. We have reviewed the effects of natural
medicines on intake, absorption and metabolism of alcohol, as well as the
protective effects on alcohol-induced acute and chronic tissue injury.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 16361209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Se Pu. 2005 Sep;23(5):477-81.

[Separation and identification of isoflavonoids in Pueraria lobata extracts and
its preparations by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled with
electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry]

[Article in Chinese]

Tian H, Wang H, Guan Y.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian
116023, China.

Isoflavonoids in Pueraria lobata extract and its preparations were separated and
identified by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (RP-CapLC) coupled
with photodiode array (PDA) detector and negative electrospray ionization
quadrupole time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. The separation was
performed on a 150 mm x 0. 32 mm i. d. , 5 microm C18 capillary column, using
mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid solution and acetonitrile
containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid under gradient elution. The product ion
spectra of the deprotonated ions allowed for the identification of puerarin,
daidzin and daidzein in the sample. Puerarin was found to be the most abundant
component in the extract (about 13%, mass fraction) and its preparations (19.28
- 24.34 mg per tablet). The structures of trace amount of unknown isoflavonoids
were deduced based on the spectra of known compounds. They were proposed to be
3'-methoxypuerarin and 3'-methoxydaidzin.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16350789 [PubMed - in process]

50: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Dec 10;68(23-24):2219-26.

Altered oral absorption of alcohol by combined aqueous extracts of four herbal
plants in rats.

Shin BS, Jun H, Lee DE, Lee KR, Park ES, Yoo SD.

College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Changan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do,
Korea.

This study examined the effect of combined aqueous extracts (BHR) of Ginko
biloba, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Citrus unshiu, and Pueraria lobata
var. chinensis on oral absorption of alcohol in rats. The rats were pretreated
with BHR, placebo solution identical to BHR without the herbal extract, and
isotonic saline. Alcohol was administered orally at 1- and 3-g/kg doses and the
absorption profiles were compared. After oral administration of 1-g/kg doses,
mean area under the curve (AUC) and C(max) values were significantly reduced in
BHR-treated rats (16.1 +/- 10.0 and 0.3 +/- 0.1 mg/ml, respectively) as compared
with saline-treated (37.9 +/- 14.4 and 0.7 +/- 0.7 mg/ml, respectively) and
placebo solution-treated (63.0 +/- 46.4 and 0.7 +/- 0.4 mg/ml, respectively)
rats. Similarly, after administration of 3-g/kg doses, mean AUC and C(max)
values in BHR-treated rats (188.1 +/- 119.7 mg(.)min/ml and 1.0 +/- 0.4 mg/ml)
were significantly reduced over those in saline-treated rats (571.4 +/- 512.4
mg(.)min/ml and 1.8 +/- 0.9 mg/ml, respectively). The relative oral
bioavailability of alcohol calculated as the ratio of AUC(BHR)/AUC(Saline) was
42.5% and 32.9% at 1- and 3-g/kg doses, respectively. The reduced serum alcohol
levels as well as the reduced AUC and C(max) after pretreatment with BHR appear
to be a result of a reduced systemic absorption not due to an increased
metabolic clearance.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16326435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51: Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Nov 2;85(41):2930-3.

[Effect of pueraria crude extreact and puerarin on ethanol-induced expression of
heat shock protein 70 in embryonic mouse hippocampal cultures]

[Article in Chinese]

Han P, Wu DS, Li WJ, Yu ZL, Wang Q.

Huaxi Public Health School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study if the Pueraria crude extreact (CP) and standard preparation
of pure puerarin (SP) possess the same neuroprotective effects on the expression
of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the embryonic mouse hippocampal cells.
METHODS: The hippocampus of 18-days-old mouse embryo was taken out and
suspension of single cells was cultured. Ethanol was added to cause HSP70 mRNA
expression. Solvent, ethanol of different concentrations (50, 200, and 300
mmol/L), SP + ethanol, and SP + ethanol were added respectively. Western
blotting was used to detect the expression of the expression of HSP70 mRNA.
RESULTS: Ethanol of different concentrations increased the expression of HSP70
mRNA and the protein in comparison with the solvent control group. SP and CP
inhibited the expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein. CONCLUSION: With identical
effect of anti-oxidative stress, both SP and CP inhibit the increase of
expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein, thus demonstrating I vitro anti-oxidative
neuroprotection.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16324368 [PubMed - in process]

52: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Oct;29(10):1913; author reply 1914.

Comment on:
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 May;29(5):756-62.

Is herbal "root" effective for reducing alcohol drinking?

Hayashino Y.

Publication Types:
Comment
Letter

PMID: 16269923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Sep;19(3):244-7.

[Potential antiviral drug pueraria crude extract and puerarin protect against
ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in embryonic mouse hippocampal cultures]

[Article in Chinese]

Han P, Li J, Li WJ, Yu ZL, Wang Q, Wu DS.

Huaxi School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Chinese medical herb pueraria crude extract (CP)
and standard of pure puerarin (SP) possess the same neuroprotective effects
during concomitant ethanol (EtOH) treatment. METHODS: Hippocampus cultures were
prepared from mice at gestational age of 18 day. Cell viability was measured by
MTT assay. RT-PCR was employed to determine mRNA expression of superoxide
dismutase (SOD). RESULTS: As measured by MTT assay, supplementation with 15 mg/L
CP or 10 mg/L SP afforded neuroprotection against all EtOH concentrations (50,
200 and 350 mmol/L, respectively) in embryonic hippocampal culture system. In
addition, both 15 mg/L CP and 10 mg/L SP could decrease expression of SOD at
mRNA level. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that CP and SP could decrease
oxidative stress induced by ethanol treatment by the decreased expression of SOD
at mRNA level, and demonstrates antioxidative neuroprotective effect of CP and
SP against developmental ethanol exposure in vitro.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16261207 [PubMed - in process]

54: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Dec;49(12):1154-9.

Suppression of arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide formation by kudzu
isoflavones in murine macrophages.

Jun M, Hong J, Jeong WS, Ho CT.

Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick,
NJ 08901-8520, USA.

Inhibitory effect of kudzu isoflavones on arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric
oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were
investigated. Isoflavone aglycones, such as daidzein, genistein, biochanin A,
and formononetin significantly suppressed arachidonic acid release (50 microM).
Biochanin A, which displayed the most active inhibition on arachidonic acid
release in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, exhibited its most potent suppression
in RAW 264.7 cell (by 86%) without showing cytotoxicity. However, isoflavone
glucosides, puerarin and daidzin, showed lower inhibitory activities on the
release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites. In NO formation, biochanin A
showed marked inhibition, by 62% (50 microM), followed by genistein, daidzein,
formononetin, and daidzin, 56, 39, 33, and 8%, respectively. 5,7-Dihydroxyl
group in the A-ring of isoflavones could be a key functional group responsible
for the strong inhibitory activity of biochanin A and genistein on NO
production. These activities may contribute to the antiinflammatory and
anticarcinogenic properties of kudzu isoflavones.

PMID: 16254887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Metabolism. 2005 Nov;54(11):1536-41.

Puerariae radix prevents bone loss in castrated male mice.

Wang X, Wu J, Chiba H, Yamada K, Ishimi Y.

Division of Applied Food Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition,
Tokyo 162-8636, Japan.

Puerariae radix (PR) is one of the earliest and most important crude herbs used
in Chinese medicine for various medicinal purposes. PR contains a high amount of
isoflavonoids, such as daidzein and genistein, which are known to prevent bone
loss induced by estrogen deficiency. We have demonstrated that PR not only
completely prevents bone loss but also significantly increases the bone mass at
high doses in ovariectomized mice without exhibiting estrogenic action in the
uterus. In this study, we examined whether PR exhibits effects on bone loss in
androgen-deficient male mice similar to estrogen-deficient female mice. Male
mice were orchidectomized (ORX) and fed a diet containing low, middle, and high
doses (5%, 10%, and 20% of diet, respectively) of PR or normal diet with
subcutaneous administration of 17beta-estradiol (E(2), 0.03 microg/d; Sigma, St
Louis, Mo), for 4 weeks. In ORX mice, the seminal vesicle weight decreased
markedly, and it was not affected by the administration of any doses of PR and
E(2). The bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole femur was significantly
decreased by ORX, and the decrease in BMD was completely prevented by intake of
the diet with the low dose of PR. Intake of the diet with the middle dose of PR
further normalized BMD in ORX mice. Furthermore, the high dose of PR
administration (PR20) significantly increased BMD in ORX mice, and the potency
was similar to that of E(2). Morphometric analysis of the femoral metaphysis
showed that intake of the diet with the low dose of PR completely prevented the
decrease in bone volume/tissue volume and trabecular number and restored the
increase in trabecular separation in ORX mice. In addition, intake of the diet
with the high dose of PR further increased bone volume/tissue volume and
trabecular number and decreased trabecular separation in ORX mice. These results
propose the possibility that estrogenic Chinese herbs such as PR can be one of
the candidates for the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis in elderly men
with hypogonadism.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16253645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2005 Nov;383(5):787-96. Epub 2005 Nov 5.

High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for
identification of isoflavones and description of the biotransformation of kudzu
root.

Zhang Y, Xu Q, Zhang X, Chen J, Liang X, Kettrup A.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian,
116023, PR China.

High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been used to
identify isoflavone aglycones and glycosides in kudzu root. Fourteen isoflavones
were detected. Among these, six were identified by comparison with authentic
standards. Tentative identifications of the other isoflavones are based on UV
spectra, mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules, and MS-MS data.
Several are reported for the first time in kudzu root. The bioactivity and
bioavailability of isoflavone aglycones are usually greater than those of their
glycosides. To improve the bioavailability of kudzu root isoflavones, crude
beta-glycosidases prepared from microbes were used to hydrolyze the isoflavone
glycosides. Several MS modes are combined not only to identify the isoflavones
in kudzu root, but also to describe the biotransformation of kudzu root
isoflavone glycosides. It is also proved that crude beta-glycosidases have high
selectivity toward the O-glycosides of isoflavones.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16237543 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Harv Womens Health Watch. 2005 Sep;13(1):6-7.

Herbal treatment helps curb urge to drink.

[No authors listed]

Publication Types:
News

PMID: 16229064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: J Sep Sci. 2005 Sep;28(14):1785-95.

Determination of 12 pueraria components by high-performance liquid
chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Lin CC, Wu CI, Sheu SJ.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, P.R.
China. chingchekimo@yahoo.com.tw

Puerariae radix, a commonly used Chinese herb drug derived from the dried root
of legume plant, contains a series of isoflavones as its chief pharmacologically
active constituents. Using 12 pueraria components as markers, an LC-UV-MS method
requiring less than 60 min, was developed for estimating the quality of pueraria
samples within 60 min. Extracts were analyzed using a Cosmosil 5C18-MS column,
by gradient elution with an aqueous solution of acetic acid and methanol-ACN at
a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. Peaks were detected at 254 nm and each peak was
identified by LC/MS. The reproducibilities (RSD) of this proposed method, on the
basis of peak-area ratios from six replicate injections, were 0.93-1.42%
(intraday) and 1.05-1.63% (interday) at a detection limit of 0.12-0.78
microg/mL. Most of the markers used in this study can be classified,
respectively, into three major categories, namely, isoflavones, O-glycosidic
isoflavones, and C-glycosidic isoflavones. The structures of the compounds were
determined from LC-MS fragmentation data and data from the literature.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16224974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep 14;100(3):244-8. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Effects of an aqueous extract of Puerariae flos (Thomsonide) on impairment of
passive avoidance behavior in mice.

Yamazaki T, Yaguchi M, Nakajima Y, Hosono T, Niiho Y, Hibi Y, Kinjo J, Nohara T.

Tsukuba Research Institute, Ohat's Isan Co. Ltd., Ushiku, Ibaraki 300-1231,
Japan. t_yamazaki@ohta-isan.co.jp

The effects of an aqueous extract of Puerariae flos (Thomsonide) on
ethanol-induced learning and memory impairment and scopolamine-induced amnesia
were investigated. Thomsonide exerted an ameliorating effect on the impairment
of both memory registration and memory retrieval induced by ethanol. These
results indicate that Thomsonide has an antiamnesic effect on the central
nervous system in alcoholic intoxication and support the traditional use of
Puerariae flos for the treatment of alcoholic intoxication. Thomsonide also
improved the scopolamine-induced impairment of memory registration in passive
avoidance behavior in mice. The results of this study suggest that it may be
possible to use Thomsonide for the treatment of age-related memory impairment
and dementia.

PMID: 16125021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Jun;30(11):855-7.

[Protective effect of purariae isoflavone on apoptosis cells of nasal mocosas in
ovariectomized rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Qi BM, Cai CC, Deng XM, Zhang L.

The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650001, China.
qibenming@21cn.com

[OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of purariae isoflavone on apoptosis
cells of atrophic nasal mucosas in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: 60 rats were
divided into four groups as control, ovariectomized, ovariectomized + nylestriol
(O + N) and ovariectomized + purariae isoflavone (O + P), each with 15 rats.
Earlier apotosis cells of mucosas taken from nasal septum were measured with
flow cytometry. RESULT: Compared with control group, and the number of apoptosis
cells of mucosas increased after being ovariectomized,and the number of
apoptosis cells of mucosas in O + N and O + D group didn't change. CONCLUSION:
Nylestriol and purariae isoflavone might have effects on protecting cells of
mucosas from lacking of estrogen by decreasing apoptosis cells in ovariectomized
rats.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16110871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2005 May;31(4-5):349-56.

Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) for improving in vitro
dissolution and oral absorption of Pueraria lobata isoflavone.

Cui S, Zhao C, Chen D, He Z.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, PR China.

The aim of our investigation was to develop and characterize
self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) of Pueraria lobata
isoflavone to improve its in vitro dissolution and oral absorption in beagle
dogs. SMEDDS consisted of oil (ethyl oleate), a surfactant (Tween 80), and a
cosurfactant (Transcutol P). In all the SMEDDS, the level of Pueraria lobata
isoflavone was fixed at 20% w/w of the vehicle. The in vitro
self-microemulsification properties and droplet size analysis of SMEDDS were
studied following their addition to water under mild agitation. A pseudoternary
phase diagram was constructed identifying the efficient self-microemulsification
region. From these investigations, an optimized formulation was selected and its
dissolution and bioavailability were compared with a tablet formulation in
beagle dogs. The in vitro dissolution rate of puerarin from SMEDDS was more than
threefold faster than that from Yufengningxin tablets (Pueraria lobata
isoflavone tablets). A 2.5-fold increase in the relative bioavailability was
observed for the SMEDDS compared with Yufengningxin tablets. The absolute
bioavailability of the SMEDDS was 82.32 +/- 15.51%, which was significantly
improved compared with that of Yufengningxin tablets. These results demonstrate
the potential of SMEDDS as an efficient way of improving the oral absorption of
Pueraria lobata isoflavone.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16093200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: Biomed Chromatogr. 2006 Feb;20(2):180-4.

Determination of puerarin in rat cortex by high-performance liquid
chromatography after intravenous administration of Puerariae flavonoids.

Yan B, Wang W, Zhang L, Xing D, Wang D, Du L.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences and
Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

In the present study, a rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic
(HPLC) assay for determination of puerarin in rat cortex was developed. The
analysis was carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column with mobile phase
acetonitrile-0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid (11:89, v/v). The detection was by UV
at 252 nm. The calibration curve for puerarin was linear (r=0.9999) over the
concentration range 0.516-206.250 microg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.206
microg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio 3) and the limit of quantification
(signal-to-noise ratio 10) was 0.516 microg/mL. Stability studies showed that
puerarin was stable at temperatures of 4 degrees C in methanol for at least 30
days. The intra- and inter-day assays of puerarin from rat cortex were less than
2.5% at concentration range 0.516-206.250 microg/mL and good overall recoveries
(97.4-101.7%) were found at same concentrations. The method was applied to
determine the pharmacokinetic parameters and the time course of puerarin in rat
cortex, following a single dosage of intravenous administration of flavonoids
from Puerariae radix at 32 mg/kg of puerarin to male Wistar rats. Copyright (c)
2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16078309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jul 27;53(15):5882-8.

Characterization of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase
inhibitor from Pueraria thunbergiana.

Kim HJ, Lee DH, Hwang YY, Lee KS, Lee JS.

Department of Genetic Engineering and Bio-medicinal Resources Research Center
and Department of Biology and Medicinal Science, Paichai University, Daejeon
302-735, South Korea.

This study describes the extraction and characterization of an inhibitor for
beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A (CoA) reductase from Pueraria
thunbergiana. The maximum HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 79
microg) was obtained when P. thunbergiana was extracted with 70% ethanol at 30
degrees C for 12 h. After purification of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor by
means of systematic solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and
HPLC, an active fraction with an IC(50) of 0.9 microg (4.25 microM) and a yield
of 1.3% was obtained. The purified HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was identified as
daidzein (C(15)H(10)O(4); molecular mass, 254 Da).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16028969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Apr;30(7):548-51.

[Experimental study of protective effect of pueraria compound on the cerebral
ischemic injury]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhao Y, Du GY, Cui HF, Cao CY, Wang XR, Zhang CY.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, Beijing 100700, China.

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the protective effects of pueraria compound on the
cerebral ischemic injury. METHOD: Using the middle cerebral artery occlusion
model (MCAO) in rats and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion models in gerbils and
mice, we investigated the influence of pueraria compound on the brain water
content and the infarct size, the cerebral apoplexy exponent, the contents of
lactic acid (LA) and lipid peroxide (LPO), the activities of lactic
dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Na+ -K+ -ATPase. RESULT:
Pueraria compound obviously reduced the brain water content and the infrarct
size in MCAO, improved motor abilities in the cerebral ischemia-reinfusion model
of gerbils, decreased the contents of LA and LPO and increased the activities of
LDH, GPx and Na+ -K+ -ATPase in cerebral ischemia-reinfusion model of mice.
CONCLUSION: Pueraria compound has the function of antioxidation and protective
effect on ischemic brain tissue.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16011106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Apr;30(7):538-40.

[Effect of puerarin on the expression of Hsp70 in the rats with cerebral injury
induced by acute local ischemia]

[Article in Chinese]

Pan HP, Mo XL, Yang JZ, Li LL, Huang ZL, Ye J, Huang J.

People's Hospital of Guangxi Autonomous Region, Nanning 530021, China.
php1968@126.com

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of puerarin on the expression of Hsp (heat shock
protein) 70 in the rats with cerebral injury induced by acute local ischemia.
METHOD: Rat model of acute local cerebral ischemia was made by ligating middle
cerebral artery. The Hsp70 expression in brain tissue was detected by SP method
of immunohistochemistry. RESULT: The expression of Hsp70 was significantly
higher in puerarintreated rats than those in the rats with cerebral ischemia.
CONCLUSION: Puerarin can enhance the level of Hsp70 expression in the rats with
cerebral injury induced by acute local ischemia.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16011103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jul;28(7):1224-8.

Antipyretic, analgesic and muscle relaxant activities of pueraria isoflavonoids
and their metabolites from Pueraria lobata Ohwi-a traditional Chinese drug.

Yasuda T, Endo M, Kon-no T, Kato T, Mitsuzuka M, Ohsawa K.

Department of Phytochemistry, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.

We evaluated the antipyretic, analgesic, and muscle relaxant activities of
Pueraria isoflavonoids and their metabolites in mice. The glycosides daidzin and
genistin significantly reduced fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Their
metabolites, daidzein and p-ethylphenol, also significantly reduced fever
induced by LPS. In addition, daidzin, daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and
p-ethylphenol showed analgesic activity as assessed by the acetic acid-induced
writhing test. Furthermore, equol and p-ethylphenol showed muscle relaxant
activity in the rotarod and horizontal wire test. These results suggest that
these compounds play a major role in the therapeutic activity of Pueraria
isoflavonoids.

PMID: 15997103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jul;28(7):1154-60.

Protective effect of puerariae radix on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen
peroxide and streptozotocin.

Kang KA, Chae S, Koh YS, Kim JS, Lee JH, You HJ, Hyun JW.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science
Research Institute, Cheju National University, Korea.

This study evaluated the protective effect of Puerariae radix against the
oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and streptozotocin in vitro
and in vivo, respectively. The ethanol extract scavenged intracellular reactive
oxygen species (ROS), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and
prevented lipid peroxidation. This radical scavenging activity of the ethanol
extract protected the cell viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4)
cells exposed to H2O2. Furthermore, this extract reduced the formation of
apoptotic cells induced by H2O2, which was demonstrated by the decreased number
of sub G(1) hypo-diploid cells and apoptotic cell body formation. The extract
increased the activities of the cellular antioxidant enzymes, superoxide
dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Administration of the extract to the
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats decreased the blood glucose levels. The
diabetic rats showed low activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the
liver, and the ethanol extract increased the CAT activity. The increased level
of lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats reverted to near normal levels after
being treated with the extract. This study showed that Puerariae radix was
effective in the amelioration of diabetes, which may be a consequence of its
antioxidant potential.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15997089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2003 May;19(3):307-11.

[Induction of hairy roots of Pueraria phaseoloides and its culture in liquid and
solid medium]

[Article in Chinese]

Shi HP, Quan H, Spiros K.

School of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.
shihp@scnu.edu.cn

An efficient transformation system for genetic transformation of medicinal
plant, Pueraria phaseoloides, which contains puerarin and daidzein with
hypothermic, spasmolytic, hypotensive and anti-arrhythmic activities, by using
agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 was developed. Hairy roots
could be obtained directly from the cut edges of petioles of leaf explants of P.
phaseoloides or via callus 20 days after inoculation with agrobacterium. The
percentage of rooted leaf explants 35 days after infection was about 85%. Hairy
roots could have a rapid growth on solid or liquid growth regulator-free MS
medium. The transformation of hairy roots was confirmed by PCR amplification of
rol B and rol C genes of Ri plasmid from A. rhizogenes. To investigate the
physiological difference between solid and liquid culture, the biomass (fresh
weight and dry weight), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the total content
of soluble sugar in hairy roots cultured for 15 days in solid and liquid medium
were detected, respectively, by the method of fluorescence labeling of
2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (2',7'-DCFH-DA) and by the anthrone
colourimetry. Compared to hairy roots in solid medium, hairy roots grew more
rapidly in liquid medium but formed no callus and appeared to become brown
earlier during culture. The fresh weight, the dry weight, the total content of
soluble sugar and the levels of reactive oxygen species of hairy roots cultured
into liquid medium MS without plant growth regulators for 15 days were 1.59
times, 1.18 times, 5.25 times and 1.16 times, respectively as much as that of
hairy roots cultured onto solid medium. Our results firstly indicate that P.
phaseoloides hairy roots in solid medium can utilize or metabolize more soluble
sugar but produce less reactive oxygen species than that in liquid medium. This
may be related to the fact that hairy roots are easier to turn brown in liquid
medium than that onto solid medium. Our results have laid a foundation for
defining optimum culture manner for large-scale cultivation and large-scale
production of secondary metabolites of P. phaseoloides hairy roots.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15969012 [PubMed - in process]

69: Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2005 Mar;40(3):220-4.

Protective effects of hydroxyethylpuerarin on cultured bovine cerebral
microvascular endothelial cells damaged by hydrogen peroxide.

Guang HM, Zhang XM, Li YQ, Wei XB, Wang ZY, Liu HQ.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan
250012, China.

AIM: To observe the damages induced by hydrogen peroxide in cultured bovine
cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (BCMEC) and evaluate the protective
effects of hydroxyethylpuerarin on hydrogen peroxide-injured BCMEC. METHODS:
BCMEC were cultured and transferred into modified Eagle medium (MEM). The
viability of cells was detected by MTT assay. Cell injury was determined by
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the extracellular medium. Flow cytometry
was employed to observe the occurrence of apoptosis. Morphologic changes of
cells were visualized under phase contrast and electron microscopes. RESULTS:
Hydrogen peroxide (200 micromol x L(-1) for 4 hours) inhibited the viability of
cultured BCMEC and stimulated LDH release. Hydrogen peroxide (100 micromol x
L(-1) for 4 hours) induced the occurrence of apoptosis. Hydroxyethylpuerarin was
shown to increase the survival rate and decrease the activity of LDH of BCMEC
damaged by hydrogen peroxide. Hydroxyethylpuerarin was also found to protect
BCMEC against apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen
peroxide induces BCMEC injury either by apoptosis or through necrosis.
Hydroxyethylpuerarin protects BCMEC against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in
a concentration-dependent manner. Its antioxidant effects might be involved as
the mechanism protection.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15952592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 15;209(3):263-8. Epub 2005 Jun 3.

Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and
methotrexate in rats.

Chiang HM, Fang SH, Wen KC, Hsiu SL, Tsai SY, Hou YC, Chi YC, Chao PD.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung,
Taiwan, ROC.

Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone
replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study
attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an
isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a
bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally
and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood
samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug
administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific
monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic
parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral
and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0
g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC(0-t) by 207.8% and
127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%,
respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and
14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at
4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the
clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly
decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in
rats.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15936791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2005 Spring;121-124:783-94.

A glycoside flavonoid in Kudzu (Pueraria lobata): identification,
quantification, and determination of antioxidant activity.

Lau CS, Carrier DJ, Beitle RR, Howard LR, Lay JO, Liyanage R, Clausen EC.

Department of Chemical Engineering, 3202 Bell Engineering Center, University of
Arkansas, 115 Chemistry Building, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) foliage has been touted as a possible energy crop.
High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the
methanolic kudzu foliage extracts confirmed the presence of robinin
(kaempferol-3-O-robinoside-7-O-rhamnoside). Robinin accounted for 0.65 +/- 0.16%
(dry basis) of kudzu biomass. Fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) was
employed to fractionate robinin from the crude extract. The antioxidant capacity
of robinin was evaluated by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.
The ORAC values of pure standard were compared with those of the extract
fractions. One milligram of the FPLC-fractionated robinin generated an ORAC
value of 5.15 +/- 2.00 micromol/mg of Trolox, whereas 1 mg of pure robinin
generated an ORAC value of 12.34 +/- 0.45 micromol/mg of Trolox. Because of its
antioxidant properties, robinin may be a flavonoid worth extracting prior to
energy production.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15930558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 May;29(5):756-62.

Comment in:
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Oct;29(10):1913; author reply 1914.

An extract of the Chinese herbal root kudzu reduces alcohol drinking by heavy
drinkers in a naturalistic setting.

Lukas SE, Penetar D, Berko J, Vicens L, Palmer C, Mallya G, Macklin EA, Lee DY.

Behavioral Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont,
Massachusetts 02478, USA. lukas@mclean.harvard.edu

BACKGROUND: Of the available medications for treating alcohol-related problems,
none are universally effective, and all have side effects that may limit their
use. Extracts of kudzu containing a variety of isoflavones have been shown to
reduce alcohol drinking in rats and hamsters. METHODS: The present study was
designed to test the efficacy of a kudzu extract in a clinical population. Male
and female "heavy" alcohol drinkers were treated with either placebo or a kudzu
extract for 7 days and then given an opportunity to drink their preferred brand
of beer while in a naturalistic laboratory setting. Participants served as their
own controls, and order of treatment exposure was counterbalanced. Drinking
behavior was monitored by a digital scale that was located in the top of an end
table. RESULTS: Kudzu treatment resulted in significant reduction in the number
of beers consumed that was paralleled by an increase in the number of sips and
the time to consume each beer and a decrease in the volume of each sip. These
changes occurred in the absence of a significant effect on the urge to drink
alcohol. There were no reported side effects of kudzu treatment. CONCLUSION:
These data suggest that an extract of this leguminous plant may be a useful
adjunct in reducing alcohol intake in a naturalistic setting.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 15897719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Exp Mol Med. 2005 Apr 30;37(2):111-20.

Antitumor activity of spinasterol isolated from Pueraria roots.

Jeon GC, Park MS, Yoon DY, Shin CH, Sin HS, Um SJ.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology/Institute of Bioscience, Sejong
University, Seoul 143-747, Korea.

We purified phytoestrogens from Pueraria root (Pueraria mirifica from Thailand
and Pueraria lobata from Korea), which is used as a rejuvenating folk medicine
in Thailand and China. Dried, powdered plant material was extracted with 100%
ethanol and further separated by concentration, filtration, and thin layer
silica gel chromatography. Using the fractions obtained during separation, we
first investigated their cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines from various
tissues. The ethanol-extracted components (PE1, PE4) had significant
antiproliferative effects on breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7, ZR-75-1,
MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and Hs578T. Second, we compared these results with the
cytotoxic effects of known flavonoids, sterols, and coumarins from Pueraria
root. The known compounds were not as effective, and occurred in a different
polarity region on HPLC. Third, further separation resulted in the isolation of
eight different components (Sub PE-A to -H). One of these, PE-D, affected the
growth of some breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA- MB-231) in a dose- and
time-dependent manner, as well as the growth of ovarian (2774) and cervical
cancer cells (HeLa). Finally, a transfection assay showed that this component
had an estrogenic effect similar to 17beta - estradiol, which activates both
estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. The NMR analysis determined that
spinasterol (stigmasta-7, 22-dien-3beta-ol) is an active cytotoxic component of
Pueraria root.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15886524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Mar;94(4):375-81. Epub 2005 Jan 26.

Analysis of the estrogenic components in kudzu root by bioassay and high
performance liquid chromatography.

Zhang Y, Chen J, Zhang C, Wu W, Liang X.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 161 Zhongshan
Road, Dalian 116011, PR China.

The estrogenic activity of the Chinese herb kudzu root was investigated by a
recombinant yeast screening assay (YES). Isoflavones are the main components in
the plant, of which puerarin is the most abundant one. The kudzu root extract
was separated into four fractions according to the polarity. The crude extract
and its sub-fractions, except the water fraction, showed clear estrogenic
activity and the potencies were in the range of 10(-3) to 10(-1)g/l. The ligand
potency was used to compare the estrogenic activity of these fractions. The
crude extract and its sub-fractions were further analyzed by high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) to correlate the activity and the active
components. Bioassay and chemical analysis showed that theoretical estrogenic
activity expressed as equivalent 17beta-estradiol concentration or the
cumulative effects are comparable to that experimentally determined by YES. The
results showed that the high content of isoflavones as well as the high
estrogenic activity could make kudzu root extract an interesting candidate for
hormone replacement therapy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15857757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: J Colloid Interface Sci. 2005 Jun 1;286(1):101-9.

Kinetic modeling of the adsorption of basic dyes by kudzu.

Allen SJ, Gan Q, Matthews R, Johnson PA.

School of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road,
Belfast BT9 5AG, UK. s.allen@qub.ac.uk

The use of kudzu, a rapidly growing, high-climbing perennial leguminous vine,
for the adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution has been investigated at
various initial dye concentrations, masses of kudzu, and agitation rates. The
extent and rate of adsorption of the three basic dyes (Basic Red 22, Basic
Yellow 21, and Basic Blue 3) were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order and a
pseudo-second-order kinetic model. While both rate mechanisms provided an
acceptable degree of correlation with the experimental sorption rate data, the
pseudo-second-order model gave a much higher degree of correlation, suggesting
that this model could be used in design and simulation applications.

PMID: 15848407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: Endocrine. 2005 Feb;26(1):33-9.

Ovulation block by Pueraria mirifica: a study of its endocrinological effect in
female monkeys.

Trisomboon H, Malaivijitnond S, Watanabe G, Taya K.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University,
Bangkok 10110, Thailand.

Pueraria mirifica (PM), a Thai herb containing phytoestrogens, may act as
estrogen and disturb reproduction. To investigate the effect of PM on the
menstrual cycle length and related hormones, nine adult female monkeys (Macaca
fascicularis) were separated into three groups. Each group (n = 3) was fed with
10, 100, and 1000 mg/d of PM for three menstrual cycles. The menstrual cycle
length increased significantly in monkeys treated with PM-10 and PM-100 and
disappeared completely in monkeys treated with PM-1000. Serum follicle
stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, and irinhibin
were lower during the treatment period in a dose-dependent manner. Changes in
menstrual cycle length and the hormonal levels recovered during the
post-treatment period only in monkeys treated with PM-10 and PM-100. PM greatly
influences menstrual cycles and may suppress ovulation by lowering serum levels
of gonadotropins.

PMID: 15805583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Mar;28(3):531-3.

Hepatoprotective effects of irisolidone on tert-butyl hyperoxide-induced liver
injury.

Lee HU, Bae EA, Kim DH.

Kyung Hee University, College of Pharmacy, Hoegi, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul, Korea.

To clarify the hepatoprotective effects of kakkalide and its metabolite
irisolidone by human fecal microflora, their effects on tert-butyl hydroperoxide
(t-BHP)-injured HepG2 cells and mice were investigated. Irisolidone protected
HepG2 cells against cytotoxicity induced by t-BHP. However, kakkalide did not
protect cytotoxicity. When kakkalide 100 mg/kg was orally administered to mice
injured by t-BHP, it significantly inhibited the increase in plasma alanine
aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities by 84% and 85% of
t-BHP-treated control group, respectively. The inhibitory effect of kakkalide is
much more potent than that of silybin, a hepatoprotective agent. However,
intraperitoneally administered kakkalide did not exhibit hepatoprotective
activity. When irisolidone was intraperitoneally administered to mice, it
exhibited potent hepatoprotective activity. Based on these findings, irisolidone
can be hepatoprotective and kakkalide may be a prodrug transformed to
irisolidone.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15744084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;29(2):176-9.

[Effect of shenwu capsule on the peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA of rat model
induced by beta-amyloid injection]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang H, Li L, Ye CF, Zhang L.

Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for Brain Aging, Beijing, 100053,
China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the new Traditional Chinese Compound
Shenwu Capsule on the damage of lymphocyte DNA and lipid peroxidation in
peripheral blood of rats induced by beta-amyloid injection. METHOD: The animal
model was made by injection of beta-amyloid25-35 into hippocampus of rats. DNA
damage of lymphocytes was measured by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)
combined with the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The content of
malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by TBA assay. RESULT: Shenwu Capsule
decreased the rate of the comet-like cell, comet-like cell lengh (TCL), and tail
moment (TM) of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of model rats. Shenwu Capsule
also declined the MDA content in serum of Abeta model rats. CONCLUSION: Shenwu
Capsule has protective effect on peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15719690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;29(2):172-5.

[Effects of puerarin on plasma membrane GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from
insulin-resistant Sprague-Dawley rats under insulin stimulation]

[Article in Chinese]

Song CY, Bi HM.

Department of Endocrinology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060,
China. lynn-song@163.com

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of puerarin injection on the amount of GLUT4
protein at the plasma membrane in insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle. METHOD:
The rat model of insulin resistance (IR) was made by being fed with high-fat
diet. The animals were divided into three groups (ten in each group): group I:
controls; group II: Insulin-resistant rats; group III: Insulin-resistant rats +
Puerarin treatment. Insulin-resistant rats were injected with 100 mg puerarin
injection per kg body weight through abdominal cavity once a day for 4 weeks.
Fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin levels were measured before and
after Puerarin treatment, respectively. Insulin treatment was achieved by
intraperitoneal injection of insulin (1 unit insulin per kg body weight.) 15
minute before killing the animals. The right hindlimb skeletal muscle was
rapidly dissected. Then the expression of GLUT4 protein at the plasma membrane
in all the animals was assessed with Western blot method. RESULT: The GLUT4
content at the plasma membrane in insulin-resistant rats skeletal muscle was
significantly lower (about 31%) than that of controls (P < 0.01). Puerarin
Injection partly corrected fasting blood glucose (from 6.17 +/- 0.67 mmol x
L(-1) to 5.54 +/- 0.35 mmol x L(-1)) and fasting serum insulin levels (from
17.09 +/- 2.02 mU x L(-1) to 11.86 +/- 1.35 mU x L(-1)) and increased the GLUT4
content at the plasma membrane by 1.18-fold in insulin-resistant rats skeletal
muscle. CONCLUSION: Puerarin Injection can ameliorate IR, and the mechanism may
be involved in increasing cell-surface level of GLUT4 through decreasing fasting
blood glucose and fasting serum insulin levels, improving GLUT4 trafficking and
intracellular insulin signaling.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15719689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Jan;29(1):66-70.

[Neuro-protective effect of naomaitong to brain damage after focal cerebral
ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in the aged rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Ren XQ, Li JS, Feng YM, Lu YQ.

Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450008, China.
Rxq23@sohu.com

OBJECTIVE: To study neuro-protective effect of naomaitong on brain damage after
focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in the aged rats. METHOD: 11 groups of
20-22-month old SD rats were subjected to 3 hours of middle cerebral artery
occlusion with the intraluminal filament technique, followed by 12 hours of
reperfusion. Nervous symptom, oedema of brain, infarct size, morphology and
superfine structure of brain, etc were monitored thoughout cerebral ischemia and
reperfusion. RESULT: Infarct size of brain in ischemia and reperfusion groups
were significantly greater. Oedema of it was higher, nervous symptom of it was
more serious, and morphology and superfine structure brain were more obvious
than those of sham-operated group. Nervous symptom, oedema of brain, infarct
size, morphology and superfine structure of brain in treated groups were ligher
than those of untreated groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Naomaitong can protect
brain damage after focal cerebral I/R in the aged rats.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15709387 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Feb 23;37(2):297-301.

HPLC method for the determination and pharmacokinetic studies on puerarin in
cerebral ischemia reperfusion rat plasma after intravenous administration of
puerariae radix isoflavone.

Yan B, Xing D, Ding Y, Tao J, Du LJ.

Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking
Union Medical College, Beijing 100094, China.

A new HPLC method for the determination of puerarin in cerebral ischemia
reperfusion rat plasma is introduced. Puerarin, the principal bioactive
component of puerariae radix isoflavone, was extracted from plasma by methanol.
The HPLC separation was then performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using
water-acetonitrile (89:11, v/v) as eluting solvent system, and UV detection at
252 nm to measure the analyte with a limit of quantitation about 9.44 ng ml(-1).
The calibration curve for puerarin was linear (r=0.9998) in the concentration
range of 9.44-1208.00 ng ml(-1), both intra- and inter-day precision of the
puerarin were determined and their coefficient of variation did not exceed 10%.
The validated method has been successfully applied for pharmacokinetic studies
of puerarin from rat plasma after intravenous administration of puerariae radix
isoflavone. Another novel finding of this study was that the elimination rate of
puerarin was significantly slower in the cerebral ischemia reperfusion rat than
in the normal rat, judging by the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained. Since
puerariae radix isoflavone was mainly administrated to the patients suffering
from cerebralvascular diseases, the pharmacokinetic studies performed on the
pathological animal models were suitable references for clinical application.

PMID: 15708670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 May;29(5):437-40.

[Effect of puerarin and daidzein on proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells]

[Article in Chinese]

Han J, Wang W, Wang LY, Liu S, Kang TD.

Dongzhimen Hospital, University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029,
China.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the different effects of Puerarin and Daidzein on the
expression of proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells, and to discuss the
mechanism. METHOD: MT was used to detect the state of VSMC (vascular smooth
muscle cell) activity. The expression levels of Survivin, Bcl-xl, Bax and
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) messenger RNA (mRNA) were
analyzed quantitatively by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
(Rt-PCR). RESULT: Compared with Puerarin groups, VSMC activity in daidzein
groups was lower, and the ratio of Bax/Gapdh/Bcl-xl/Gapdh was higher.
CONCLUSION: The inhibition effect of daidzein on VSMC proliferation is stronger
than that of puerarin.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15706898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Apr;29(4):356-8.

[Influence of Pueraria thomsonii on insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone]

[Article in Chinese]

Bai HY, Zou WJ, Gao XP.

Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of Pueraria thomsonii on insulin
resistance induced by dexamethasone. METHOD: 3T3-L1 adipocytes model of insulin
resistance was made by dexamethasone and the change of glucose concentration in
cell culture was determined after action of drugs. Rat animal model of insulin
resistance was made by intramuscular dexamethasone (1 mg x kg(-1), every other
day), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting serum insulin (FINS) were
enamined, and at the end of the experiment, insulin sensitive index (ISI) and
insulin resistance index (IRI) were calculated. RESULT: P. thomsonii decreased
the concentration of glucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes culture significantly and
improved the sensitivity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to insulin. P. thomsonii improved
the sensitivity of rats to insulin and diminished the fasting serum insulin and
insulin resistance index. CONCLUSION: P. thomsonii can significantly improve
insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15706877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):248-51.

[Effect of puerarin on L-type calcium channel in isolated rat ventricular
myocytes]

[Article in Chinese]

Guo XG, Chen JZ, Zhang X, Xia Q.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine,
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China. gxg@mail.hz.zj.cn

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Puerarin on L-type calcium channel in
isolated rat ventricular myocytes. METHOD: The cardiac ventricular myocytes were
isolated enzymatically by Langendorff perfusion techniques at constant flow
rate. Whole-cell recording of patch-clamp techniques was used to observe the
current of L-type calcium channel. RESULT: Puerarin 2.4 mmol x L(-1) could
inhibit the current of L-type calcium channel of rat ventricular myocytes and
this inhibition was time-dependent. Purerarin elevated the current-voltage (I-V)
curve of calcium current. CONCLUSION: Puerarin can inhibit L-type calcium
current of rat ventricular myocytes. Which implies that puerarin takes part in
anti-myocardial ischemia and anti-arrhythmics partly due to the inhibition of
L-type calcium channel.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15706853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85: Org Biomol Chem. 2005 Feb 21;3(4):674-81. Epub 2005 Jan 24.

The first total synthesis of kwakhurin, a characteristic component of a
rejuvenating plant, "kwao keur": toward an efficient synthetic route to
phytoestrogenic isoflavones.

Ito F, Iwasaki M, Watanabe T, Ishikawa T, Higuchi Y.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage,
Chiba 263-8522, Japan.

A convergent synthesis of kwakhurin (5), a characteristic estrogen-like
isoflavone of Pueraria mirifica(Leguminosae), is described. Isoflavone skeleton
31 was constructed by Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of 3-bromochromone 26 (AC-ring)
and arylboronic acid 30 (B-ring) in the presence of TBAB as an additive.
Microwave-assisted coupling was also examined, but did not improve the yield.
Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, followed by propargylation and reduction afforded
1,1-dimethylallyl ether 37. 6'-Prenylisoflavone 34 was obtained in high yield by
Claisen rearrangement of 37 in N,N-diethylaniline. On the other hand,
1,3-rearrangement of prenyl ether 33 with clay gave 34 in poor yield. Successive
methylation of 34 and deprotection yielded the target kwakhurin (5) in 12%
overall yield from 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (23).

PMID: 15703807 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 9;53(3):518-23.

Analysis of isoflavone daidzein in Puerariae radix with micelle-mediated
extraction and preconcentration.

He J, Zhao Z, Shi Z, Zhao M, Li Y, Chang W.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular
Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

Nonionic surfactant oligo(ethylene glycol) monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) was
employed as an alternative and effective solvent for the extraction of daidzein
from Puerariae radix for the first time. Optimum experimental conditions were
established. With 5% Genapol X-080 (w/v), liquid/solid ratio of 25:1 (mL/g), and
ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 45 min, the extraction percentage of daidzein
reached the highest value. For the preconcentration of daidzein by cloud-point
extraction (CPE), sodium chloride was added to the solution to facilitate the
phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor by reducing the volume
of the surfactant-rich phase. The preconcentration factor for daidzein was about
13. Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of daidzein from P.
radix with this established method.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15686396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87: Plant Physiol. 2005 Feb;137(2):700-12. Epub 2005 Jan 14.

Evolution of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway in kudzu.

Sharkey TD, Yeh S, Wiberley AE, Falbel TG, Gong D, Fernandez DE.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
tsharkey@wisc.edu

Isoprene synthase converts dimethylallyl diphosphate, derived from the
methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, to isoprene. Isoprene is made by
some plants in substantial amounts, which affects atmospheric chemistry, while
other plants make no isoprene. As part of our long-term study of isoprene
synthesis, the genetics of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway of the isoprene
emitter, kudzu (Pueraria montana), was compared with similar genes in
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which does not make isoprene. The MEP
pathway genes in kudzu were similar to the corresponding Arabidopsis genes.
Isoprene synthase genes of kudzu and aspen (Populus tremuloides) were cloned to
compare their divergence with the divergence seen in MEP pathway genes.
Phylogenetic analysis of the terpene synthase gene family indicated that
isoprene synthases are either within the monoterpene synthase clade or sister to
it. In Arabidopsis, the gene most similar to isoprene synthase is a
myrcene/ocimene (acyclic monoterpenes) synthase. Two phenylalanine residues
found exclusively in isoprene synthases make the active site smaller than other
terpene synthase enzymes, possibly conferring specificity for the five-carbon
substrate rather than precursors of the larger isoprenoids. Expression of the
kudzu isoprene synthase gene in Arabidopsis caused Arabidopsis to emit isoprene,
indicating that whether or not a plant emits isoprene depends on whether or not
it has a terpene synthase capable of using dimethylallyl diphosphate.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15653811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88: J Reprod Dev. 2004 Dec;50(6):639-45.

Long-term treatment effects of Pueraria mirifica phytoestrogens on parathyroid
hormone and calcium levels in aged menopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

Trisomboon H, Malaivijitnond S, Suzuki J, Hamada Y, Watanabe G, Taya K.

Biological Science Ph.D. Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok, Tokyo, Japan.

To determine the effect of Pueraria mirifica (PM) on serum parathyroid hormone
(PTH) and calcium levels on aged menopausal monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),
subjects were treated with 10, 100, or 1,000 mg/day of PM. Blood samples were
collected every 5 days for 30, 90, and 60 days during pre-treatment, treatment,
and post-treatment periods, respectively. Sera were assayed for PTH, estradiol,
and calcium levels. PM-1,000 had the strongest effect on the decrease in PTH
(0.001<P< or =0.05) and calcium levels (0.001<P< or =0.03) during the treatment
period. PTH levels remained low for the first 15 days of the post-treatment
period (0.01< or =P < or =0.05). PM-10 induced a significant decrease in PTH
level on day 80 (P=0.02) during the treatment period and a significant decrease
in calcium level on day 75 (P<0.01). There were no changes in serum PTH and
calcium levels throughout the study period in the PM-100 group. Estradiol levels
decreased significantly during the treatment period in all treatment groups. The
results suggest that long-term treatment with 1,000 mg/day of PM decreases serum
PTH and calcium levels in aged menopausal monkeys, indicating that PM
ameliorates bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15647615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2004 Oct;37(5):384-90.

[Effect of sucrose concentration on the growth and production of secondary
metabolites in Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots]

[Article in Chinese]

Liang P, Shi HP, Qi Y.

Guangdong Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life
Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

Effects of sucrose concentrations on the growth and production of puerarin and
isoflavones compounds in Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots induced by
Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 were investigated. Changes of sucrose
consumption in the medium during liquid culture were also determined. The
results showed cultured for 16 days in MS medium with 5%, 4%, 3% and 2% sucrose,
the proliferation times of dry weight of hairy roots were 11.7, 11.9, 10.1 and
5.9, respectively. 3% sucrose concentration in liquid medium was the best for
accumulation of puerarin and isoflavones in the hairy roots. The highest content
of puerarin, 5.147 mg/g DW, was obtained after 12 days of liquid culturing while
the highest content of isoflavones, about 27.76 mg.g.DW, was gained after 16
days in culturing. Sucrose concentration decreased as hairy root growth
proceeded. The growth rate and the content of soluble sugar in hairy roots of P.
phaseoloides was directly proportional to the rate of sucrose utilization in the
liquid medium during the whole culture. It was observed that the highest content
of soluble sugar in hairy roots was at day 12 of liquid culture and sucrose in
the liquid medium was used up at the end of 16 days of culture.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15636366 [PubMed - in process]

90: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Oct;29(10):981-4.

[Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect of puerarin on rat thoracic aorta]

[Article in Chinese]

Dong K, Tao QM, Xia Q, Shan QX, Pan GB.

Department of Cardiovascular, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University
School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China. dongkan76@sohu.com

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of puerarin in rat aortic
rings and the mechanism. METHOD: The isolated thoracic aortic rings of male
Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted on the organ bath and the contractile responses
of the vessel were recorded. RESULT: Puerarin completely relaxed the
contractions induced by phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner in
endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aorta, but it had no effect on
those preconstricted by a high concentration of potassium chloride (KCl, 60 mmol
x L(-1)). The relaxant effect of puerarin was significantly inhibited by
pretreatment of endothelium-denuded aorta with potassium channel antagonists
tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine but not glibenclamide. CONCLUSION: Puerarin
induces an endothelium-independent relaxation in rat aortic rings. The
mechanisms may involve the reduction in Ca2+ influx through the calcium channels
operated by alpha-adrenergic receptor and the activation of the potassium
channels (Kv and BKca, but not KATP).

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro

PMID: 15631089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Biomed Chromatogr. 2005 Jun;19(5):375-8.

Study on the bioavailability of puerarin from Pueraria lobata isoflavone
self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems and tablets in rabbits by liquid
chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Cui S, Zhao C, Tang X, Chen D, He Z.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016,
People's Republic of China.

To evaluate the bioavailability of puerarin from Pueraria lobata isoflavone
self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) and Yufengningxin tablets,
a rapid and specific liquid chromatography--mass spectrometric method was
developed and validated to determine puerarin in rabbit serum. The analyte was
extracted from serum samples by precipitating the serum proteins, separated on a
Diamonsil C(18) column and detected by mass spectrometry with an electrospray
ionization interface. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was used as the internal standard.
The method has a limit of quantitation of 10 ng/mL using 200 microL serum. The
intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 3.7 to 6.9% and
inter-day RSDs were within 6.5%. After administration of SMEDDS and tablets to
rabbits, a significant difference was observed in main pharmacokinetic
parameters of t(max), C(max) and AUC(0--infinity) between SMEDDS and tablets,
and a 2.2-fold increase in the relative bioavailability of puerarin was observed
with the SMEDDS compared with Yufengningxin tablets. It was concluded that the
absorption of puerarin from Pueraria lobata isoflavone SMEDDS was enhanced. (c)
2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Validation Studies

PMID: 15627278 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Dec;28(12):1178-80.

[Experimental study of puerarin injection on the hemorheology in acute
blood-stasis model rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Pan HP, Yang JZ, Li LL, Yi F, Huang ZQ, Huang KW.

People's Hospital of Guangxi Autonomous Region, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Puerarin Injection on the hemorheology in
acute blood-stasis model rats. METHOD: The acute blood-stasis model rats were
made by being soaked in ice water afer being injected adrenaline hydrochloride
injection in a major dose. The changes of viscosity of whole blood and plasma,
blood yield stress, erythrocyte aggregation and the maximum rate of platelet
aggregation in the acute blood-stasis model rats were measured with
Auto-Viscometer, and then the influence of Puerarin Injection on the
hemorheology in the model rats was investigated. RESULT: The viscosity of whole
blood and plasma, and blood yield stress in the acute blood-stasis model rats
were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P < 0.01, P <
0.05). Both the high dose and the low dose of Puerarin Injection could reduce
the viscosity of whole blood and plasma, blood yield stress and the maximum rate
of platelet aggregation in the acute blood-stasis model rats (P < 0.01, P <
0.05). The high dose could also reduce the erythrocyte aggregation and the
deformed Index of red blood cell (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Puerarin Injection can
ameliorate the hemorheology in acute blood-stasis model rats, and it has a
dose-response relationship.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15617506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Dec;28(12):1141-5.

[Study on HPLC-FPS of Pueraria of different sources]

[Article in Chinese]

He CN, Li M, Cao ZG, Guo HY, Wang CL, Yu SC.

Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union
Medical College, Beijing 100094, China. chunnianhe@163.com

OBJECTIVE: To make comparative study on HPLC-FPS of several kinds of Pueraria
lobata and P. thomsonii from different sources. METHOD: Kromasil C18 column was
used, with mixture of acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode.
The wavelength of measurement was 250 nm. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The
fingerprints of P. lobata and P. thomsonii were obtained. This method can be
used to identify P. lobata and P. thomsonii from different sources conveniently,
and it may be practically valuable for the quality control of sample for P.
lobata or P. thomsonii and its preparation.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
English Abstract

PMID: 15617494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94: J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Dec;96(4):428-35. Epub 2004 Dec 3.

Different effects of Pueraria mirifica, a herb containing phytoestrogens, on LH
and FSH secretion in gonadectomized female and male rats.

Malaivijitnond S, Kiatthaipipat P, Cherdshewasart W, Watanabe G, Taya K.

Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Suchinda.m@chula.ac.th

To investigate the effect of Pueraria mirifica (P. mirifica) containing
phytoestrogens on reproductive systems, both sexes of rats were gonadectomized
and treated orally with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg BW per day of P. mirifica
suspended in water (abbreviated as P-0, P-10, P-100, and P-1000), respectively.
The treatment schedule was separated into 3 periods: pre-treatment, treatment,
and post-treatment. The duration for each period was 14 days. Blood samples were
taken once a week. Serum LH and FSH levels were significantly increased within 1
week after gonadectomy; and there were no changes after administration of P-0,
P-10, and P-100. However, the increase of LH levels in both sexes and FSH levels
in females were attenuated within 1 week after P-1,000 treatment. The
attenuation of LH levels in males was smaller than that of females. The decrease
of gonadotropin levels was recovered within 1 week in males and 2 weeks in
females, respectively, during the post-treatment period. The increase of uterine
weight and vaginal cornification were observed in female rats treated with P-100
and P-1,000, whereas only the increase of epididymis weight was found in male
rats treated with P-1,000. From this study, it can be concluded that P. mirifica
can influence the reproductive functions in both sexes of rats, but the response
in females is greater than in males.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15599108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):133-8.

A comparative study on aqueous root extracts of Pueraria thomsonii and Pueraria
lobata by antioxidant assay and HPLC fingerprint analysis.

Jiang RW, Lau KM, Lam HM, Yam WS, Leung LK, Choi KL, Waye MM, Mak TC, Woo KS,
Fung KP.

Department of Biochemistry and Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

The roots of Pueraria thomsonii and Pueraria lobata are officially recorded in
Chinese Pharmacopoeia under the same name Radix Puerariae. However, the aqueous
root extract of Pueraria lobata showed more potent antioxidant activity than
that of Pueraria thomsonii. A qualitative HPLC method was developed to compare
the chemical profiles of Pueraria thomsonii and Pueraria lobata, which revealed
four major common peaks (daidzein 1, daidzin 2, puerarin 3 and 5-hydroxypuerarin
4) and two major different peaks (3-hydroxypuerarin 5 and 3'-methoxypuerarin 6)
in their chromatograms. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that the contents of
1-3 in Pueraria lobata are about three, three, and five times higher than those
of Pueraria thomsonii, respectively. The higher contents of isoflavonoids in
Pueraria lobata were inferred to be responsible for its more potent antioxidant
activity as compared with that of Pueraria thomsonii. The HPLC method developed
in this study and chemical markers 1-6 can be used for the rapid identification
and evaluation of Radix Puerariae herbs and their aqueous supplements, and the
results of this investigation support the use of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria
thomsonii in the clinic application and as dietary supplement, respectively.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15588661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96: Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Oct;25(10):731-2.

[The effects of Radix Puerariae decoction on levels of antibody and
interleukin-2 in mice]

[Article in Chinese]

Ma J, Cheng G, Li D, Liu H.

Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116027.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Radix Puerariae on immune response. METHOD:
Decoction of Radix Puerariae was administrated to mice (i.g.), and then sheep
red blood cell (SRBC) and ovalbumin were used as antigens. Levels of anti-SRBC,
anti-ovalbumin antibodies and serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) were determined.
RESULT: Levels of anti-SRBC, anti-ovalbumin antibodies were higher in
experimental group than that in control group (P < 0.05), while concertrations
of IL-2 showed no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Decoction of Radix
Puerariae can promote the formation of antibody.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15562724 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):777-81.

[Effects of puerarin on number and activity of endothelial progenitor cells from
peripheral blood]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang FR, Chen JZ, Zhu JH, Wang XX, Zhu JH, Shang YP, Guo XG, Dai HM, Sun J.

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical School
of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether puerarin can augment endothelial progenitor
cells (EPCs) numbers, promote EPC proliferation, migration and adhesion. METHOD:
Total mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from peripheral blood by Ficoll
density gradient centrifugation, and then the cells were plated on
fibronectin-coated culture dishes. After 7 days culture, attached cells were
stimulated with puerarin (to make a series of final concentrations: 0. 1, 0.5,
1, 3 mmol x L(-1)) or vehicle control for the respective time points (6, 12, 24,
48 h). EPCs were characterized as adherent cells double positive for
DiLDL-uptake and lectin binding by direct fluorescent staining under a laser
scanning confocal microscope. EPCs proliferation, migration and in vitro
vasculogenesis activity were assayed with MT assay, modified Boyden chamber
assay and in vitro vasculogenesis kit, respectively. EPCs adhesion assay was
performed by replating those on fibronectin-coated dishes, then adherent cells
were counted. RESULT: Incubation of isolated human MNCs with puerarin dose
increased the number of EPCs, maximum at 3 mmol x L(-1), 24 hours (approximately
1-fold increase, P < 0.01). In addition, puerarin also promoted EPC
proliferative, migratory, adhesive and in vitro vasculogenesis capacity.
CONCLUSION: Puerarin can augment the number of EPCs with enhanced functional
activity.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15506293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Jul;29(7):663-6.

[Experimental study on anti-pyretic effect of gegen qin lian decoction and its
compounds]

[Article in Chinese]

Yu LZ, Wu JY, Luo JB, Huang XG, Shao HX, Lin H.

Department of Chinese Drugs Pharmacology of First Military Medical University,
Guangzhou 510515, China. yulzh@fimmu.com

OBJECTIVE: To investigate composition principles of Gegen Qin Lian decoction
through anti-pyretic experiment. METHOD: Pharmacological effects of different
compounds of Gegen Qin Lian decoction according to six hours temperature
response index (TRI6) and average top temperature response height (deltaT) after
the decoction was given to feverish animal model by inactived bacteria
suspension. RESULT: As for reducing six hour temperature response index,
Scutellaria baicalensis root was the main effective drug. Pueraria lobata root
could enforce the effect while Coptis chinensis rhizome and Glycyrrhiza
uralensis root counteracted it. As for reducing average top temperature response
height, the Effects of four herbal drugs were the same as for TRI6. CONCLUSION:
Of the compounds of Gegen Qin Lian decoction, as to the pharmcological
anti-pyretic effects, the best one is the compound of Scutellaria baicalensis
and Pueraria lobata roots.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15503775 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99: Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Sep;27(9):906-11.

Establishment of in vitro test system for the evaluation of the estrogenic
activities of natural products.

Kim OS, Choi JH, Soung YH, Lee SH, Lee JH, Ha JM, Ha BJ, Heo MS, Lee SH.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Silla University, Busan 617-736,
Korea.

In order to evaluate estrogenic compounds in natural products, an in vitro
detection system was established. For this system, the human breast cancer cell
line MCF7 was stably transfected using an estrogen responsive chloramphenicol
acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid yielding MCF7/pDsCAT-ERE119-Ad2MLP
cells. To test the estrogenic responsiveness of this in vitro assay system,
MCF7/pDsCAT-ERE119-Ad2MLP cells were treated with various concentrations of
17beta-estradiol. Treatments of 10(-8) to 10(-12) M 17beta-estradiol revealed
significant concentration dependent estrogenic activities compared with ethanol.
We used in vitro assay system to detect estrogenic effects in Puerariae radix
and Ginseng radix Rubra extracts. Treatment of 500 and 50 microg/ml of Puerariae
radix extracts increased the transcriptional activity approximately 4- and
1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the ethanol treatment. Treatment of 500,
50, and 5 microg/ml of Ginseng radix Rubra extracts increased the
transcriptional activity approximately 3.2-, 2.7-, and 1.4-fold, respectively,
compared with the ethanol treatment. These observations suggest that Puerariae
radix and Ginseng radix Rubra extracts have effective estrogenic actions and
that they could be developed as estrogenic supplements.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15473658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39(4):319-25.

Antibacterial effect of crude water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea
extracts on food-borne pathogens in liquid medium.

Kim S, Fung DY.

Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Food Microbiology Laboratory, Kansas
State University, Manhattan, KS 47907-2009, USA. kim98@purdue.edu

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of crude water-soluble arrowroot tea extracts on
microbial growth of food-borne pathogens in liquid medium and to confirm the
damage to bacterial cells using Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7,
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and
Staphylococcus aureus was investigated using Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth
containing 0 (control), 0.63, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0% (w/v) arrowroot tea. Bacterial
cell counts were performed on specific selective agar on days 0, 1, 3 and 5. BHI
containing 5.0% arrowroot tea extract showed a 6-7 log suppression of growth for
all test strains on days 3 and 5, compared with the control. Even 0.63%
arrowroot tea effectively inhibited microbial growth of all test strains on day
5. TEM images of the samples treated with 5.0% arrowroot tea revealed the
rupture of cell walls and nonhomogeneous disposition of cytoplasmic materials
within treated bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Crude water-soluble arrowroot tea extract
strongly inhibited microbial growth of all test pathogens in liquid medium.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water-soluble arrowroot tea extract has
the potential to be used directly on foods or as a spray on the surfaces of food
handling and processing facilities in order to prevent microbial growth of both
Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15355532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101: Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Sep;347(1-2):121-8.

Supplementation of Pueraria radix water extract on changes of antioxidant
enzymes and lipid profile in ethanol-treated rats.

Lee JS.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kosin University, Busan 606-701, South Korea.
jslee@Kosin.ac.kr

BACKGROUND: Water extract of Pueraria radix (PRWE), traditional oriental
medicinal plant, may have an effect on the activity of hepatic antioxidant
enzymes and lipid profile in ethanol-treated rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley
rats were divided into control, ethanol, PRWE and ethanol-PRWE supplemented
groups. Twenty-five percent (v/v) ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) was orally
administered once a day for 5 weeks. The PRWE was supplemented in a diet based
on 1500 mg of raw PRWE/kg body weight/day. RESULTS: Ethanol feeding resulted in
a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and lower aldehyde dehydrogenase
(ALDH) activity. After PRWE supplementation, both activities were increased. The
PRWE supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the plasma and liver
total cholesterol concentrations in the ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol
administration significantly lowered the activities of hepatic superoxide
dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), whereas it increased the plasma and hepatic
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the hepatic glutathione
peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. However, PRWE supplementation resulted in a
significant increase in the SOD and CAT activities and a significant decrease in
the TBARS and the GSH-Px activities in the ethanol-treated rats. CONCLUSION:
PRWE can contribute to alleviating the adverse effect of ethanol ingestion by
enhancing the lipid metabolism as well as the hepatic antioxidant defense
system.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15313149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102: Planta Med. 2004 Jul;70(7):627-31.

Effects of puerarin on learning-memory and amino acid transmitters of brain in
ovariectomized mice.

Xu X, Hu Y, Ruan Q.

College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, P.R.
China. sky88@mail.zjnu.net.cn

In the present study, the protective effects of puerarin (Pur) on learning and
memory in ovariectomized mice were investigated.One week after ovariectomy (Ovx)
or sham operation, female mice were given a 4-week treatment of Pur (50 or 100
mg/kg,i.p.) or estradiol benzoate (EB, I or 5 pg/day, i.p.). The results showed
that, following treatment with 50 or 100 mg/kg Pur in Ovx mice, the training
times for achieved learning criterion in aY-maze declined by 11.8 % and 17.8 %
(P > 0.05 and P < 0.05), and that memory retention increased by 23.3 % and 28.3
% (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05), respectively. In addition, the prolonged escape
latency of platform finding in a water maze was shortened by 15.5% and 23.8% (P
< 0.05 and P < 0.05). After a behavior test,the levels of glutamate (Glu) and
GABA in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed using high-performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that 100 mg/kg Pur normalized
the levels of Glu and GABA in the hippocampus of Ovx mice, while the Glu level
was significantly elevated from 24.1+/- 4.5 to 27.9+/- 3.5 mg/g protein (P <
0.05), and GABA was decreased from 5.64+/- 1.06 to 4.73+/- 0.85 mg/g protein (P
< 0.05).The results indicated that Pur possessed phytoestrogen activity,and
long-term treatment of Pur ameliorated learning and memory deficits of Ovx mice
through affecting the activity of the glutamatergic/GABAergic system in the
hippocampus.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15303253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103: J Med Food. 2004 Summer;7(2):168-79.

Kudzu root extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal
symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol.

Benlhabib E, Baker JI, Keyler DE, Singh AK.

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Alcohol-preferring (P) rats, given free choice to drink water or 15% alcohol,
drank 7-10 g of alcohol/kg/day, giving blood alcohol values ranging from 16 to
24 mg/dL. Body weight and food and total fluid intake values in control and
alcohol-drinking P rats did not differ significantly, while water intake was
inversely related to the amount of alcohol consumed. Alcohol withdrawal after 50
days of alcohol drinking caused withdrawal symptoms such as hypersensitivity,
poor landing coordination, and tremors. A daily 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg dose of
kudzu root (KdR) did not affect body weight and food and water intake values in
control (no alcohol) P rats. Subchronic feeding of relatively higher KdR doses
(0.75 and 1.0 g/kg) caused a 25-30% reduction in weight gain. The 0.5 g/kg KdR
dose caused a 50-60% reduction in alcohol consumption, abolished the development
of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, but did not affect blood alcohol levels. The
higher KdR doses did not further reduce alcohol consumption. Alcohol suppressed
the weight-reducing effects of KdR. The KdR extract used in this study contained
150 mg/g of puerarin, 13 mg/g of daidzin, 4 mg/g of daidzein, 3 mg/g of
genistin, 0.2 mg/g of genistein, and 1 mg/g of glycetin. Blood and liver samples
contained mostly puerarin and a trace amount of daidzein that may have been
formed by the hydrolysis of daidzin by liver enzymes. An important observation
was that brain samples obtained from KdR-fed or alcohol + KdR-fed rats did not
contain any of the KdR isoflavones. Thus, KdR isoflavones suppressed alcohol
drinking and withdrawal symptoms without entering the brain.

PMID: 15298764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104: Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Jul;18(6):367-80.

Quantitative analysis of phytoestrogens in kudzu-root, soy and spiked serum
samples by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Benlhabib E, Baker JI, Keyler DE, Singh AK.

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Minnesota, St Paul Campus, 1333 Gortner Ave, St Paul, MN 55108,
USA.

A sensitive and reliable HPLC method that allows simultaneous quantification of
phytoestrogens extracted from kudzu-root and soy preparations, and serum samples
has been developed. Kudzu-root and soy preparations were mixed with 5 microg
flavone and 15 microg rutin (internal standards) and the phytoestrogens were
extracted by using solid-phase (C18) extraction cartridges. Blank or spiked
serum samples were extracted by using either C18 cartridges or trichloroacetic
acid-methanol extraction. The extracts were analyzed by the HPLC equipped with a
reverse-phase (250 x 4 mm, C18) column and UV, diode-array or MS detector. A
linear gradient of acetic acid and acetonitrile provided excellent separation of
glycoside and aglycone-phytoestrogens from kudzu root and soy preparations. The
C18 cartridge extraction of serum yielded excellent recovery of both glycoside-
and aglycone-phytoestrogens, while the trichloroacetic acid-methanol extraction
yielded excellent recovery of glycoside but poor recovery of aglycone compounds.
UV and MS detectors were suitable for phytoestrogen analysis in plant and serum
samples, while the diode-array detector was suitable for generating the UV
absorbance curve for phytoestrogens.

Publication Types:
Validation Studies

PMID: 15273977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep;94(1):165-73.

Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the extract from Kalopanax
pictus, Pueraria thunbergiana and Rhus verniciflua.

Kim IT, Park YM, Shin KM, Ha J, Choi J, Jung HJ, Park HJ, Lee KT.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul
130-701, Republic of Korea.

The combined extracts obtained from three Chinese herb medicine, Kalopanax
pictus, Pueraria thunbergiana and Rhus verniciflua, have been used as
therapeutics for diabetes mellitus in Korea. In the present study, we have
investigated their possible anti-inflammatory effects by comparing the potency
of individual extracts with that of the combined extracts. An individual water
extract prepared from Kalopanax pictus, Pueraria thunbergiana, and Rhus
verniciflua was named K-1, P-1, and R-1, respectively. Simultaneously, we also
prepared the combined extracts from above three plant materials by identical
methods and named KPR-1. These four extracts were further fractionated into the
EtOAc extracts, and these were designated as K-2, P-2, R-2, and KPR-2,
respectively. These eight samples were subjected to the nitrite assays in
LPS-induced macrophage 264.7 cells. KPR-2 exhibited the most pronounced effect
on the inhibition of NO production among all the extracts. KPR-2 also
significantly decreased PGE2, and TNF-alpha release. In addition, KPR-2 showed
in vivo anti-inflammatory activity against acute paw edema induced by
carrageenan in rats. When analgesic activity was measured by the acetic
acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test, KPR-2 showed a
dose-dependent inhibition in animal models. These results suggested that the
mixture extract and successive fractionation could lead to the better use of
anti-inflammatory medicinal crude drugs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15261979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106: Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Jul;27(7):1099-102.

Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-inhibitory action of tectorigenin, a metabolite of
tectoridin by intestinal microflora.

Park EK, Shin YW, Lee HU, Lee CS, Kim DH.

Department of Biochemistry, Kon Kuk University, Chungju, Chungcheongbuk-do,
Korea.

Tectoridin isolated from the flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana (Leguminosae) are
metabolized to tectorigenin by human intestinal microflora. When tectoridin was
orally administered to rats, tectorigenin, but not tectoridin, was detected in
urine after beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis. The main metabolite tectorigenin
potently inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and inhibited in
vitro the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells induced by IgE.
These results suggest that tectoridin is a prodrug, which can be transformed
into the active agent tectorigenin by human intestinal bacteria and can be a
candidate for antiallergic agent.

PMID: 15256747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107: Planta Med. 2004 Jul;70(7):610-4.

Activation of alpha1A-adrenoceptors by genistein at concentrations lower than
that to inhibit tyrosine kinase in cultured C2C12 cells.

Jou SB, Huang CC, Liu IM, Cheng JT.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and Hospital, China Medical
University, Taichung City, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Genistein, an isoflavonoid natural product, is widely used to inhibit protein
tyrosine kinase (PTK). In the present study, we investigated the possible
influence of genistein on alpha (1)-adrenoceptors (AR) in cultured C2C12 cells.
Genistein enhanced the uptake of radioactive glucose into C2C12 cells in a
concentration-dependent manner. Similar results were also observed in samples
treated with daidzein, the inactive congener for PTK inhibition. The effect of
genistein on alpha (1)-AR was further characterized using the displacement of [
(3)H]prazosin binding in C2C12 cells. The increase in radioactive glucose uptake
by genistein was abolished by RS17053 at a concentration sufficient to block
alpha (1A)-AR. The pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73122
resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of genistein-stimulated glucose
uptake in C2C12 cells. This inhibition by U73122 was specific because the
inactive congener, U73343, failed to modify the action of genistein. Moreover,
genistein can activate alpha (1A)-AR at a concentration (1 micromol/L) lower
than that (50 micromol/L) needed to abolish the insulin-stimulated
phosphorylation of PTK. The obtained data indicate an activation of alpha
(1A)-AR by genistein to increase the glucose uptake into C2C12 cells and this
supports the application of genistein as a TK inhibitor.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15254853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug;93(2-3):255-60.

The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red
(Butea superba), and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plants on the growth of
MCF-7 cells.

Cherdshewasart W, Cheewasopit W, Picha P.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai
Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. cwichai@sc.chula.ac.th

The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red
(Butea superba) and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plant extracts on the
growth of MCF-7 cells was evaluated after 4 days of incubation. The percent cell
growth comparison was based on protein determination of the harvested cells in
parallel with the control group and Pueraria lobata treatment group. Pueraria
lobata led to no proliferation and a mild anti-proliferation effect on the
growth of MCF-7 cells. Pueraria mirifica caused proliferation at 1 microg/mL and
an anti-proliferative effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000
microg/mL with an ED50 value of 642.83 microg/mL. Butea superba led to no
proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at
10, 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 370.91 microg/mL. Mucuna
collettii led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth
of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 85.36 microg/mL.
The results demonstrated that only Pueraria mirifica showed an estrogenic effect
on MCF-7 cell growth and a clear antagonistic effect with E2 at high
concentration. Butea superba and Mucuna collettii exhibited only
anti-proliferation effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells in relation with a
possible anti-estrogen mechanism or a potent cytotoxic effect.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15234761 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109: World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul 1;10(13):1967-70.

Effects of Radix Puerariae flavones on liver lipid metabolism in ovariectomized
rats.

Wang JF, Guo YX, Niu JZ, Liu J, Wang LQ, Li PH.

Department of Biochemistry, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing
100029, China.

AIM: To study the effects of Radix Puerariae flavones (RPF) on liver lipid
metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: Forty adult female Wistar rats
were randomly divided into four groups: OVX group; sham-OVX group; OVX+estrogen
group and OVX+RPF group. One week after operation rats of the first two groups
were treated with physiological saline, rats of OVX+estrogen group with estrogen
(1 mg/kg.b.w.) and rats of OVX+RPF group with RPF (100 mg/kg.b.w.), respectively
for 5 weeks. After the rats were killed, their body weight, the weight of the
abdominal fat and uterus were measured, and the levels of total cholesterol (TC)
and triglyceride (TG) in liver homogenate were determined. RESULTS: Compared
with the sham-OVX group, the body mass of the rats in OVX group was found
increased significantly; more abdominal fat in store; TC and TG in liver
increased and uterine became further atrophy. As a result, the RPF was found to
have an inhibitive action on those changes of various degrees. CONCLUSION: RPF
has estrogen-like effect on lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

PMID: 15222048 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Biotechnol Lett. 2004 Jul;26(13):1057-9.

Scale-up production of puerarin from hairy roots of Pueraria phaseoloides in an
airlift bioreactor.

Kintzios S, Makri O, Pistola E, Matakiadis T, Shi HP, Economou A.

Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agricultural Biotechnology,
Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece.
skin@aua.gr

Hairy roots of the Chinese herb, Pueraria phaseoloides, obtained from leaf
explants and transformed with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were cultured in 2.5
l airlift bioreactors for three weeks. Puerarin accumulated at 5,570 microg
g(-1) dry wt, which is near 200 times as much as in 250 ml flask cultures. In
addition, puearin was exuded into the nutrient medium at final concentrations
higher than in the hairy roots themselves.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15218379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111: J Med Food. 2004 Spring;7(1):31-7.

Effect of kaikasaponin III obtained from Pueraria thunbergiana flowers on serum
and hepatic lipid peroxides and tissue factor activity in the
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

Choi J, Shin MH, Park KY, Lee KT, Jung HJ, Lee MS, Park HJ.

College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Korea.

We investigated the effect of kaikasaponin III (KS-III) on Phase I and II
enzymes and tissue factor (TF) activity to elucidate the pharmacological actions
of this immunosuppressive saponin in the diabetic rat. This compound was
obtained from the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana (Leguminosae) by
chromatographic isolation. This crude drug (Puerariae Flos) has been used as a
therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus in traditional Korean medicine. KS-III
prolonged the bleeding time and plasma clotting time in streptozotocin
(STZ)-treated rats and increased the TF activity, suggesting that this compound
has anti-thrombosis activity in STZ-induced rats. It also inhibited the
formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxy radicals in serum and liver, but
promoted superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Low MDA concentrations and low
xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase activities were observed in the
KS-III-treated rats, suggesting that such Phase I enzyme activities are the
major source of lipid peroxidation. However, KS-III increased Phase II enzyme
activities such as SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, suggesting the
activation of free radical-scavenging enzymes. These results suggest that KS-III
may exhibit its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects by up-regulating or
down-regulating antioxidant mechanisms via the changes in Phase I and II enzyme
activities.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15117550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112: J Plant Physiol. 2004 Mar;161(3):343-6.

In vitro isoflavonoid production in callus from different organs of Pueraria
lobata (Wild.) Ohwi.

Matkowski A.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Medical University in Wroclaw,
Al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wroclaw, Poland. am9@biol.am.wroc.pl

Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi is a medicinal plant producing large amounts of
isoflavonoid glycosides. Here, the ability of in vitro callus cultures to
synthesize isoflavonoids was tested. Callus cultures have been initiated from
different explants of in vitro germinated plants using modified MS medium.
Roots, leaves and stem segments were the best sources of callus tissue. The
isoflavonoid profile and content was determined by means of chromatographic
methods. Callus from all organs contained isoflavonoid aglycones: genistein and
daidzein and daidzein glycosides: daidzin, puerarin and 3'-methoxypuerarin. The
differences between each kind of explant were observed in both the total amount
of isoflavonoids and in the proportion of individual compounds. The highest
content was in root callus, followed by leaf- and stem callus.

PMID: 15077633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;24(2):169-71.

[Study on the plant estrogen in Chinese herbal medicine]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang RG, You ZL, Feng GR.

PMID: 15015457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Sep;28(9):853-6.

[Effect of daidzein on antiarrhythmia]

[Article in Chinese]

Ye HY, Qiu F, Zeng J, Yiao XS, Lai F.

Department of Pharmacology, Gan Nan Medical College, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi,
China. heyangye@sohu.com

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Daidzein on Antiarrhythmia. METHOD: The
conventional antiarrhythmia methods were used. RESULT: Daidzein was remarkedly
effective in preventing ventricular fibrillation induced by chloroform in mice
and arrhythmia induced by aconitine in rats. The arrhythmia induced by adrenalin
in rabbits was antagonized by Daidzein and it could obviously inhibit the action
potential amplitude of isolated sciatic nerves in toads. And it could also
prevent ventricular fibrillation induced by calcium chloride in rats, and
obviously reduce the death rate of rats. Its anti-arrhythmic effect was
dose-dependent. CONCLUSION: Daidzein has obvious protective effect on
drug-induced arrhythmia, which may be related to its inhibition of Na+ or Ca2+
influx and its blocking beta-adrenergic receptor.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro

PMID: 15015382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Jun;28(6):560-2.

[Effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary gland and uterus
development in rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Xue XO, Jin H, Niu JZ, Wang JF.

Beijing University of Chinese Traditional Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.
xxo123@163.net

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary
gland and uterus development in rats. METHOD: 40 Wistar rats weighting 65-85 g
were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, estrogen group, extracts of
root of kudzu vine group of high dose, extracts of root of kudzu vine group of
low dose. (10 rats in each group). After having been treated for 7 days, the
rats were killed; mammary glands and uterus were removed and weighed. Serum was
isolated and kept at 4 degrees C for determination of hormones. RESULT: 1.
Administration of the root of kudzu vine significantly increased the weigh of
mammary gland and uterus in rats. 2. Administration of the root of kudzu vine
increased serum FSH, LH, E2 and decreased PRL. CONCLUSION: Extracts of root of
kudzu vine could enhance the weight of mammary gland and uterus growth in rats,
which may provide experimental evidence for the development of new drug used for
promoting mammary gland and uterus.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15015341 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Jan;28(1):66-9.

[Effects of puerarin on fatty superoxide in aged mice induced by D-galactose]

[Article in Chinese]

Xu XH.

Academy of Life and Environment Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua
321004, Zhejiang, China. jhxuxiaohong@btamail.net.cn

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of puerarin on fatty superoxide of aged mice
induced by D-galactose. METHOD: The aged mice were induced by s.c. 0.12 g.kg-1
D-galactose for 6 weeks. Meanwhile, they were treated with three doses of
puerarin once a day for 6 weeks. Then the spontaneous behavior was tested in the
aged mice using open field at the next day after the last treatment. And the
activity of SOD, the contents of MDA and lipofuscin in brain, liver, and serum
were measured with Ultravioletray spectrometer and Fluorospectrophometer
analysis system. RESULT: Compared with the D-galactose control group, puerarin
of 50 mg.kg-1 and 100 mg.kg-1 puerarin significantly increased the spontaneous
behavior, remarkably promoted the activity of SOD of brain, liver, and serum in
the aged mice, and significantly decreased the contents of MDA and lipofuscin.
CONCLUSION: Puerarin can improve the activity of antioxidase of the modelling
aged-mice induced by D-galactose.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15015271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

117: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Jan;28(1):49-51.

[Determination of puerarin, daidzin and daidzein in root of Pueraria lobata of
different origin by HPLC]

[Article in Chinese]

Jin WS, Tan YY, Chen YG, Wang Y.

Beijing Yuke Botanical Development CO., LTD., Beijing 100062, China.
jinwenshan@yahoo.com.cn

OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method to determine Puerarin, Daidzin and Daidzein
in Pueraria lobata. METHOD: The separation was performed in a SYMMETRY C18
column with a mobile phase of methanol-1% HAC solution (gradient elution), the
The detection wavelength being 250 nm. RESULT: The average recovery was
respectively 101.7%, 100.7% and 101.7% (n = 3), RSD 0.43%, 0.82% and 1.50% (n =
3) for Puerarin, Daidzin and Daidzein. CONCLUSION: This method is suitable for
the determination of Puerarin, Daidzin and Daidzein in Pueraria lobata and its
preparation.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15015267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118: Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):86-91.

Induction of growth hormone release by Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH.

Jung DY, Ha H, Kim C.

Drug Research and Development Team, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 129-11
Chungdam-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-100, Korea.

Puerariae Radix (PR), Puerariae Flos (PF), and Puerariae Surculus (PS) as well
as their constituents were tested for induction of rat growth hormone (rGH)
release by both rat pituitary cell culture and in vivo experimentation in order
to develop them to novel drugs. Through a calibration curve of the rGH released
by addition of rat growth hormone-releasing hormone (rGHRH) to rat pituitary
cells, the 70 % ethanol extracts of PR and PS increased rGH release by about 1.6
and 1.7 times as high, respectively, as the control group (264.6 +/- 13.6 pM).
However, each puerarin type as a representative constituent of PR in Korea
Pharmacopeia (KP) and tectorigenin and an important ingredient of PF were twice
as effective as in the control group. The acid hydrolysate of Puerariae Surculus
(HPS) increased rGH release concentration-dependently, and its EC (50) was
approximately 10.4 microg/ml. The T (max) value for rGH after injection of 20
microg/kg of rGHRH was 10 - 30 min, while the C (max) value was increased by
approximately 12-fold compared to the control group (198.2 +/- 25.0 pM) and the
AUC (0 - 45) was increased to 10 times the level of the control group (10,840.9
+/- 845.5 min. pM). On the other hand, T (max) for the HPS was 60 min, while C
(max) was increased approximately to 5.8 fold compared to control (244.1 +/-
36.4 pM). C (max) for puerarin was 1,028.6 +/- 502.7 pM, that is, approximately
5.2 times as high as the control level. However, tectorigenin (20 microg/kg) was
of no statistical significance. Therefore, we suggest that the HPS and puerarin
act either on GH secretagogue receptors or on GHRH receptor of somatotrophin as
possible agonists or an inhibitor on somatostatin receptor to release rGH,
respectively.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15002057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119: Planta Med. 2004 Feb;70(2):113-6.

Mediation of beta-endorphin by the isoflavone puerarin to lower plasma glucose
in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Chen WC, Hayakawa S, Yamamoto T, Su HC, Liu IM, Cheng JT.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Nihon University,
Tokyo City, Japan. jtcheng@mail.ncku.edu.tw

We investigate the mechanism(s) of plasma glucose lowering action of puerarin in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Puerarin at the
effective dosage to lower higher plasma glucose increased plasma
beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) in STZ-diabetic rats. Both effects of
puerarin were abolished by the pretreatment with prazosin. Also, puerarin
enhanced BER release from isolated rat adrenal medulla in a
concentration-dependent manner that can be abolished by prazosin. Moreover,
bilateral adrenalectomy in STZ-diabetic rats eliminated the actions of puerarin
including the plasma glucose lowering effect and plasma BER elevating effect. In
addition, naloxone and naloxonazine inhibited the plasma glucose lowering action
of puerarin. Unlike in wild-type diabetic mice, puerarin failed to lower the
plasma glucose in opioid micro-receptor knockout diabetic mice. In conclusion,
our results suggest that puerarin may activate alpha (1)-adrenoceptors on the
adrenal gland to enhance the secretion of beta-endorphin to result in a decrease
of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14994187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120: Phytochem Anal. 2004 Jan-Feb;15(1):40-5.

Screening for oestrogenic activity of plant and food extracts using in vitro
trout hepatocyte cultures.

Bennetau-Pelissero C, Latonnelle KG, Lamothe V, Shinkaruk-Poix S, Kaushik SJ.

Micronutriments, Reproduction and Health Unit, ENITA de Bordeaux, 1 cours du
General de Gaulle, 33175 Gradignan, France. c-bennetau@enitab.fr

The use of in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures is shown to provide a simple and
effective way to screen plant and food products for oestrogenic activity. The
relative oestrogenic activities of 0.1 g each of extracts of phytosterol, soy
isoflavone, red clover, kudzu and soybean extracts were determined using this
assay and found to be equivalent to 212, 1, 3.2, 132 and 1025 nM of
17beta-estradiol, respectively. Controls were performed on soybean and kudzu
extracts using specific ELISAs for isoflavones and these confirmed the validity
of the cell culture assay. The method described offers an advantage over current
methods in that it can detect increased oestrogenic activity that may occur as a
result of metabolic activation of pre- or pro-oestrogens liver cells.

PMID: 14979526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121: J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Jan;87(1):33-40.

Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of
vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Study.

Lamlertkittikul S, Chandeying V.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hat Yai Regional Hospital, Songkhla
90110, Thailand.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica
in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms. DESIGN: Open-label study. SETTING: Hat
Yai Regional Hospital, Thailand. SUBJECTS: Pre and postmenopausal women with
vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats. Other unpleasant
symptoms, urogenital and psychological symptoms, were also evaluated. MATERIAL
AND METHOD: Patients were enrolled voluntarily and randomly received 50 mg or
100 mg of Pueraria mirifica in capsules, once daily for six months. RESULTS: Of
the 48 enrolled patients, 11 cases were excluded for failing to complete the
initial work-up. Thirty-seven cases were evaluated. 20 of 37 (54.1%) randomly
received a dose of 50 mg/day of Pueraria mirifica (Group A), and 17 of 37
(45.9%) received 100 mg/day of Pueraria mirifica (Group B). The mean of the
modified Greene climacteric scale decreased from 35.6 to 26.6, 17.2 and 15.1 in
group A, while group B, declined from 32.6 to 21.0, 14.8 and 13.6 at 1-, 3- and
6-month respectively. The mean serum estradiol, fluctuated from the baseline of
76.6 to 55.4, 56.7, 72.5, 69.2, 114.2 and 74.5 pg/ml at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and
6-month respectively. Whereas the mean serum follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) was stable in the range of; 27.1/12.6, 28.3/12.9
and 22.5/11.4 mIU/ml at baseline, 3- and 6-month respectively. CONCLUSIONS:
Pueraria mirifica, containing phytoestrogens, relatively alleviated the
climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women. The transient negative profiles
occurred in a small number of subjects that included anemia, and liver profiles.
While there was a slight decrease in lipoproteins and an increase in hormonal
profiles, Pueraria mirifica demonstrates great promise in the treatment of
climacteric symptoms among perimenopausal women. However, optimal doses should
be clinically assessed, to meet appropriate individual responses.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Clinical Trial, Phase II
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14971532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122: J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Jan;94(1):51-9.

Estrogenic effects of Pueraria mirifica on the menstrual cycle and
hormone-related ovarian functions in cyclic female cynomolgus monkeys.

Trisomboon H, Malaivijitnond S, Watanabe G, Taya K.

Biological Science Ph.D. Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok, Thailand.

This study investigated the estrogenic effect of Pueraria mirifica (P. mirifica)
on menstrual cycle length and hormone-related ovarian function. Nine normal
cyclic monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were separated into 3 groups; each group
was force fed with a single dose of 10, 100, and 1,000 mg of P. mirifica. The
experimental schedule was separated into the pre-treatment and post-treatment
periods. Blood samples were collected on days 3, 9 - 14, 19, 24, 29, and every
10 days until the next menstruation for one and two menstrual cycles during two
consecutive periods and assayed for serum levels of gonadotropins and ovarian
hormones. The result showed a significant increase in lengths of the follicular
phase and total menstrual cycle in monkeys treated with 1,000 mg of P. mirifica,
but no change in menstrual cycle length in monkeys treated with 10 and 100 mg of
P. mirifica. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone,
estradiol, progesterone, or immunoreactive-inhibin did not change during the
first and second menstrual cycles of the post-treatment period for all monkey
groups. Our findings demonstrate that although changes in hormonal levels could
not be observed in this study, a single dose of 1,000 mg of P. mirifica can
disturb ovarian function and menstrual cycle in monkeys.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14745118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2003 Dec;36(6):407-13.

[Culture of hairy roots in Pueraria phaseoloides and its puerarin production]

[Article in Chinese]

Shi HP, Liang P, Kintzios S.

School of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631.
shihp@scnu.edu.cn

An efficient transformation system for genetic transformation of medicinal
plant, Pueraria phaseoloides was developed, by using agropine-type Agrobacterium
rhizogenes ATCC15834. Hairy roots could be obtained via callus from the cut
edges of leaf explants of P. phaseoloides 20 days after inoculation with
agrobacterium. 35 days after infection, the percentage of rooted leaf explants
was about 85%. Hairy roots could have an autonomous growth on solid or liquid
growth regulator-free MS medium but grew more rapidly and formed no callus
during culture in liquid medium. The transformation of hairy roots was confirmed
by PCR amplification of rolB and rolC genes of Ri plasmid from A. rhizogenes. To
investigate the physiological difference between solid and liquid culture, the
mitochondrial membrane potential in hairy roots cultured for 15 days in solid
and liquid medium were also detected by the method of fluorescence labeling of
3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanide iodide. The results showed mitochondrial
membrane potential of hairy roots in liquid medium was 11.8 times higher than
that on solid medium. The content of puerarin in hairy roots reached a level of
1.190 mg/g.dry.wt and was 2.5 times as much as that in the roots of P.
phaseoloides seedlings and was also 1.067 times as much as that in the crude
drug of several year-old Pueraria roots. Our experiments have laid a foundation
for large-scale production of puerarin in P. phaseoloides hairy roots.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14724930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124: J Anim Sci. 2003 Dec;81(12):2923-37.

Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the
western Amazon region of Brazil.

Rueda BL, Blake RW, Nicholson CF, Fox DG, Tedeschi LO, Pell AN, Fernandes EC,
Valentim JF, Carneiro JC.

Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias, Melchor Ocampo
234, Veracruz, VE 91700, Mexico.

Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic
returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one
dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in
the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion
rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria
brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume
were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the
end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to
grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to
dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for
gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The
predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha
and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more
NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the
rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less
predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum
grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per
animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current
forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking
indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study
suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of
grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy
for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current
conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest
clearing.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14677847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

125: Contact Dermatitis. 2003 Jun;48(6):348-9.

Maculopapular drug eruption due to the Japanese herbal medicine Kakkonto (kudzu
or arrowroot decoction).

Akita H, Sowa J, Makiura M, Akamatsu H, Matsunaga K.

Department of Dermatology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Japan.
hakita@partners.org

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 14531887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126: Pharmazie. 2003 Sep;58(9):682-3.

Flavonoids of Pueraria lobata: chromatographic analysis of leaves and roots of
cultivated plants.

Matkowski A, Wozniak D, Oszmianski J, Lamer-Zarawska E.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Wroclaw University of Medicine,
Poland. bbsekret@biol.am.wroc.pl

PMID: 14531473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127: J Bone Miner Metab. 2003;21(5):268-75.

Puerariae radix prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

Wang X, Wu J, Chiba H, Umegaki K, Yamada K, Ishimi Y.

Division of Food Science, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1
Toyama, 162-8636, Tokyo, Shinjyuku-ku, Japan.

Puerariae radix (PR), the root of Pueraria labata (Willd.) Ohwi, a wild creeper
leguminous plant, is one of the earliest and most important crude herbs used in
Chinese medicine for various medicinal purposes. PR contains a high amount of
isoflavonoids such as daidzein and genistein, which are known to prevent bone
loss induced by estrogen deficiency. We have demonstrated that soybean
isoflavones prevent bone loss in an osteoporotic animal model. To examine the
possible role of PR in bone metabolism, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX),
and some OVX mice were fed a diet containing low, middle, and high doses (5%,
10%, and 20% of diet, respectively) of PR for 4 weeks. In OVX mice, the uterine
weight declined, and intake of PR at any dose did not affect uterine weight. The
total femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly reduced by OVX, and
the decrease in BMD caused by OVX was significantly inhibited by intake of the
diet with the low dose of PR and completely prevented by the middle dose of PR.
Histological analysis of the femoral metaphysis showed that intake of the diet
with the middle dose of PR completely prevented decrease in trabecular bone
volume (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and restored the increase in
trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in OVX mice. In contrast, intake of the diet with
the high dose of PR further increased BV/TV and Tb.Th and decreased Tb.Sp in OVX
mice compared with that in the sham-operated mice. These results suggest that PR
may represent a potential alternative medicine for hormone replacement therapy
(HRT) in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12928827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2002 Dec;22(6):976-9.

[The rapid analysis of functional components of P. Lobata by near infrared
spectrum]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen B, Zhao LL, Li JH, Yan YL.

Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing 100094, China.

The functional components of P. Lobata were analyzed rapidly by near infrared
(NIR) spectral technology. The optimum conditions of mathematics model of three
components (total isoflavones, puerarin, daidzin) were studied, including the
sample set selection, chemical value analysis, the detection methods and
conditions. The analytical results demonstrated that the correlation between the
chemical value (true value) of the three components of sample set and the NIR
predicated value is 0.975, 0.984, 0.996, respectively. The correlation between
the chemical value of the testing sample set and the NIR predicated value is
0.982, 0.975 and 0.981, respectively. It proved that the mathematical model that
we established can be used in practice.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12914179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

129: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):593-606.

Plant derivatives in the treatment of alcohol dependency.

Rezvani AH, Overstreet DH, Perfumi M, Massi M.

Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3412, Durham, NC
27710, USA. Azadi@duke.edu

The present review summarizes the findings of the effects of extracts of
purified compounds from several plants on alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring
rats. These include St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, HPE), kudzu (Pueraria
lobata) and ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga). Alcohol-preferring (P), Marchigian
Sardinian (msP), high-alcohol-drinking (HAD), Fawn-Hooded (FH) rats were allowed
to drink alcohol or water voluntarily to establish baseline levels. Pure
compounds (puerarin, daidzin, daidzein or analogs) isolated from kudzu, extracts
from HPE or ibogaine and its analog were given by either intraperitoneal or oral
administration. After acute administration, all agents dose-dependently reduced
alcohol intake with minimal effects on food intake. Puerarin and HPE were also
effective following chronic treatment. Overall, it is clear that pure compounds
(daidzin, puerarin), extracts from St. John's wort, ibogaine and an ibogaine
analog suppress alcohol intake in animal models of excessive drinking with
minimal effects on other appetitive behaviors. Although the true mechanisms of
action of these compounds on alcohol intake are not fully understood, with the
current information, it appears that these compounds exert their effects by
modulating several neuronal systems implicated in drinking behavior. However,
their role in the future of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism will depend upon the
outcome of carefully conducted clinical trials.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 12895677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130: Liver Int. 2003 Aug;23(4):221-6.

Beta-glucuronidase inhibitor tectorigenin isolated from the flower of Pueraria
thunbergiana protects carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

Lee HW, Choo MK, Bae EA, Kim DH.

College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

BACKGROUND/AIM: To understand the relationship between the fluctuation in serum
beta-glucuronidase and hepatotoxicity, an inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase was
isolated from the flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana and its hepatoprotective
activity was measured. METHOD: Tectorigenin was isolated from the flowers of
pueria thunbergiana as an inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase, and serum ALT, AST
and biological parameters as markers for its hepatoprotective activity were
measured on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The relationship between serum
beta-glucuronidase and hepatoprotective activities in mice was measured.
RESULTS: : When tectorigenin at a dose of 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally
administered on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, it significantly inhibited
the increase of plasma ALT, AST and LDH activities. The inhibitory effect of
tectorigenin is much more potent than that of dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate
(DDB), which has been used as a commercial hepatoprotective agent. When
tectoridin transformed to tectorigenin by intestinal bacteria was orally
administered to mice, it showed hepatoprotective activity. However, when
tectoridin was intraperitoneally administrated to mice, it did not exhibit
hepatoprotective activity. Moreover, orally administered tectoridin not only
inhibited beta-glucuronidase but also increased GSH content and GST activity on
CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity of mice. CONCLUSION: We insist that an inhibitor of
beta-glucuronidase tectorigenin may be hepatoprotective and tectoridin should be
a prodrug transformed to tectorigenin.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12895260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131: Menopause. 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):352-61.

Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the
adverse health consequences of menopause.

Woo J, Lau E, Ho SC, Cheng F, Chan C, Chan AS, Haines CJ, Chan TY, Li M, Sham A.

Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong
Kong, Hong Kong. jeanwoowong@cuhk.edu.hk

OBJECTIVE: Pueraria lobata (PL) is used as a traditional Chinese herbal remedy
for menopausal symptoms, as well as an ingredient in preparations for conditions
affecting menopausal women, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, and
some hormone-dependent cancers. The scientific basis for its action may be its
action as a phytoestrogen. DESIGN: To examine the effects of PL in comparison
with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on lipid profile, sex hormone levels,
bone turnover markers, and indices of cognitive function. For the study, 127
community-living, postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years were randomized to
receive HRT (n = 43), PL (equivalent to 100 mg isoflavone; n = 45), or no
treatment (n = 39) for 3 months. The following measurements were carried out at
baseline and after 3 months for all participants: menopausal symptoms
questionnaire; neuropsychological tests covering memory, attention, motor speed,
and word-finding ability; quality of life (SF36); lipid profile; urinary
deoxypyridinoline; dietary phytoestrogen intake and urinary phytoestrogen;
estradiol; follicle-stimulating hormone; and luteinizing hormone. RESULTS: Only
participants in the HRT group showed a mean reduction in cholesterol and
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that was significantly different from that
of the control group. No significant changes in lipid profile or
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were observed in the PL
group compared with the controls. However, both the HRT and PL groups showed an
improvement in Mini-Mental State Examination score and attention span compared
with the case of participants receiving no treatment. HRT and PL had different
effects on cognitive function; HRT improved delayed recall, whereas flexible
thinking seemed improved in the PL group. CONCLUSIONS: This study was unable to
demonstrate a scientific basis for the use of PL for improving the health of
postmenopausal women in general. However, the effect of PL on cognitive function
deserves further study.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12851519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132: J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 16;51(15):4213-8.

Profiling and quantification of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements by
high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass
spectrometry.

Prasain JK, Jones K, Kirk M, Wilson L, Smith-Johnson M, Weaver C, Barnes S.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham,
Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

The kudzu vine (Pueraria sp.) is a rich source of isoflavones. Dietary
supplements based on kudzu have become commercially available. In the present
study, liquid chromatography coupled with negative and positive electrospray
ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and diode array detection (DAD) has
been used for the detection and characterization of isoflavonoids in kudzu
dietary supplements (KDS). The MS/MS spectrum of the protonated ion of puerarin
showed characteristic product ions of the C-glycoside unit itself, whereas
daidzin generated an abundant Y(0)(+) aglycon ion in its product ion spectrum. A
base peak due to the loss of 120 Da [M + H - 120](+) is the diagnostic ion for
C-glycosides. Neutral loss scans allowed for the detection of other C- and
O-glycosides in the methanolic extract of KDS, and their structures have been
proposed. The concentration of isoflavonoids in the methanolic extract of
commercially available KDS was quantified by using DAD-HPLC. Puerarin, rather
than daidzin, was the most abundant component (8.44-30.60 mg/capsule) in
commercially available KDS.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 12848487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

133: Plant Cell Rep. 2003 Jul;21(11):1103-7. Epub 2003 Apr 23.

Genetic transformation of Pueraria phaseoloides with Agrobacterium rhizogenes
and puerarin production in hairy roots.

Shi HP, Kintzios S.

College of Life Science, South China Normal University, 510631 Guangzhou, China.
shihp@scnu.edu.cn

An efficient transformation system for the medicinal plant Pueraria phaseoloides
was established by using agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. Hairy
roots could be obtained directly from the cut edges of petioles of leaf explants
or via callus 10 days after inoculation with the bacteria. The highest frequency
of explant transformation by A. rhizogenes ATCC15834 was about 70% after
infection for 30 days. Hairy roots could grow rapidly on solid, growth
regulator-free Murashige and Skoog medium and had characteristics of transformed
roots such as fast growth and high lateral branching. Paper electrophoresis
revealed that bacteria-free hairy roots of P. phaseoloides could synthesize
agropine and mannopine. The polymerase chain reaction amplification of rooting
locus genes showed that left-hand transferred DNA of the root inducing plasmid
of A. rhizogenes was inserted into the genome of transformed P. phaseoloides
hairy roots. The content of puerarin in hairy roots reached a level of 1.190
mg/g dry weight and was 1.067 times the content in the roots of untransformed
plants.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12836005 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134: J Nat Prod. 2003 Jun;66(6):788-92.

Antihyperglycemic effect of puerarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Hsu FL, Liu IM, Kuo DH, Chen WC, Su HC, Cheng JT.

Institute of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University,
Taipei City, Taiwan 110-31.

The antihyperglycemic action of puerarin, purified from the roots of Pueraria
lobata, was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic
rats). Bolus intravenous injection of puerarin decreased the plasma glucose
concentrations in a dose-dependent manner in STZ-diabetic rats. Similar
treatment with puerarin also decreased the plasma glucose in normal rats,
although the effect was not as great as that in STZ-diabetic rats. Puerarin at
the effective dose (15.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the increase of plasma
glucose induced by an intravenous glucose challenge test in normal rats. In the
isolated soleus muscle of STZ-diabetic rats, puerarin enhanced the uptake of
radioactive glucose in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the mRNA and
protein levels of the subtype 4 form of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in soleus
muscle were increased after repeated intravenous administration of puerarin in
STZ-diabetic rats for 3 days. These results suggest that puerarin can increase
the glucose utilization to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats lacking
insulin.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12828463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135: J Vet Sci. 2002 Dec;3(4):273-7.

Requirement of metabolic activation for estrogenic activity of Pueraria
mirifica.

Lee YS, Park JS, Cho SD, Son JK, Cherdshewasart W, Kang KS.

Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul
National University, San 56-1, Shilim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

A wide range of chemicals derived from plant and human-made xenobiotics are
reported to have hormonal activities. The present study was performed to examine
the estrogenic effect of Kwao Keur, Pueraria mirifica (PM), that has been used
as a rejuvenating folk medicine in Thailand, using recombinant yeast, MCF-7 cell
proliferation and HepG2 cell transient transfection assay. In recombinant yeast
assay, 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25, 2.5 x 10(2), 2.5 x 10(3), 2.5 x 10(4) ng/ml
concentrations of PM did not show any estrogenic activities, while 10(-9) of 17
beta-estradiol (positive control) showed high estrogenic activity. Estrogenic
activities were induced at 2.5 ng/ml to 25 microg/ml concentrations of PM in a
dose-dependent manner on MCF-7 cells and the estrogenic effect of PM was blocked
by tamoxifen treatment, a well-known anti-estrogen. PM also showed estrogenic
effect on human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 cells, containing estrogen receptor
and luciferase reporter gene. Taken together, PM in itself may have no
estrogenicity in yeast system, but it has estrogenicity in MCF-7 & HepG2 cells
that have human metabolic enzymes. The results indicated that PM may require
metabolic activation for estrogenic activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12819377 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136: Phytochemistry. 2003 Jul;63(5):577-80.

Allelopathic substances in Pueraria thunbergiana.

Kato-Noguchi H.

Department of Biochemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa
University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan. hisashi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp

Leaves of Pueraria thunbergiana possess allelopathic activity and the putative
compounds causing this growth inhibitory effect were isolated from their aqueous
methanol extract. The chemical structures of these growth inhibitors were
determined by high-resolution MS and 1H NMR spectral data as cis,trans-xanthoxin
and trans,trans-xanthoxin. cis,trans-Xanthoxin and trans,trans-xanthoxin
inhibited the root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings at
concentrations greater than 0.3 and 3 microM, respectively. The doses required
for 50% inhibition on the cress roots were 1.1 and 14 microM for cis,trans- and
trans,trans-xanthoxin, respectively. The concentrations of cis,trans- and
trans,trans-xanthoxin in P. thunbergiana leaves were 51.4 and 72.5 ng g(-1)
fresh weight, respectively. The effectiveness of cis,trans- and
trans,trans-xanthoxin on the growth inhibition and the occurrence of both
xanthoxins in P. thunbergiana suggest that xanthoxins may contribute to the
growth inhibitory effect of P. thunbergiana, and may play an important role in
the allelopathy of P. thunbergiana after being released into the soil.

PMID: 12809718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137: Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Feb;26(2):148-51.

[Clinical study on Tianbaokang injection against oxidative injury of vascular
endothelial function in ischemic apoplexy]

[Article in Chinese]

Jin M, Qin J, Wu W.

Affiliated First Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080.

OBJECTIVE: To discuss clinical effects and therapeutic mechanisms of Tianbaokang
Injection on ischemic apoplexy. METHODS: 70 cases of ischemic apoplexy were
divided into two groups at random(Tianbaokang group and contrast group, 38 and
32 cases respectively). Clinical effects and indexes of hemorheology and
vascular endothelial oxidative injury(SOD activity, MDA content, NO level and
ET-1 concentration). RESULTS: The efficiency of Tianbaokang on ischemic apoplexy
was 92.1%. Tianbaokang can improve indexes of hemorheology, decrease plasm MDA
and ET-1 content, and increase SOD activity and NO level obviously. CONCLUSION:
Tianbaokang has better effects on ischemic apoplexy. The therapeutic mechanisms
may be related to improving hemorheology, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and
vascular endothelial injury, and regulating endothelial function.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
English Abstract
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 12795227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

138: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Nov;27(11):850-2.

[Effect of the purariae-isofiavones on estrogen level in normal and
ovariectomized rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Qi BL, Qi BM.

Department of Gerontology, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong
University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei, China.
qibenling@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of purariae isoflavone on estrogen level in
ovariectomized rats. METHOD: 80 rats were divided into four groups randomly,
every group with 20 rats: 1. Control group; 2. Normal + purariae isoflavone
group; 3. Ovariectomized group; 4. Ovariectomized + purariae isoflavone group.
Estrogen level and gonadotropin-releasing hormone level of all rats were
measured. RESULT: Thirty days after being ovariectomized, E2, E3 level was
significantly lower than that of the first group(P < 0.05). But Testerone, FSH,
LH, PRL and GH increased(P < 0.05). After being gastrogavaged with
purariae-isolfavone for thirty days, Estrogen level and gonadotropin-relasing
hormone level of the second group were significantly lower in various degree
than those of normal control group (P < 0.05). But in ovariectomized rats, the
estrogen level was recovered (P > 0.05). The gonadotropin-releasing hormone
level was increased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Purariae-isoflavone can increase
estrogen level to normal in ovariectomized rats by way of increasing the level
of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In normal rats, it has anti-estrogen effect.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12776591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Sep;27(9):684-7.

[Studies of bi-derectional modulation effect of kudzuvine root on immunol cells]

[Article in Chinese]

Song SZ, Dong ZN, Gu F, Tian YP.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing
100853, China.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bi-directional modulation effect of Chinese herbal
medicine on immunol cells. METHOD: Two different active portions were isolated
from Kudzuvine Root(Radix puerariae), one being the ethanol extraction and
another the water extraction. Different concentration of these two different
portions was studied by using PMA stimulated lymphocyte or eosinophil initiated
chemiluminescence system. RESULT: Water extraction of Kudzuvine Root could
enhance chemiluminescence concentration dependently whereas enthanol extraction
of Kudzuvine Root inhibited the chemiluminescence significantly. CONCLUSION: The
bi-directional regulation effect of Chinese herbal medicine can be found in the
same herb, because of its efficacy of different active compounds.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12776571 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

140: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Nov;26(11):760-1.

[Determination of puerarin in xinmaitong oral liquid by HPLC]

[Article in Chinese]

Huang YF, Zhang YM, He A, Cao XH.

Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou
510630, Guangdong, China.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to determine the content of puerarin in
Xinmaitong oral liquid. METHODS: HPLC method was used. The separation was
performed on Suntek kromasil C18 column with methanol-water containing 0.5%
acetic acid (25:75) as a mobile phase and the wavelength of UV detector was 250
nm. RESULTS: The linearity of puerarin was good and average recovery was 97.8%.
CONCLUSION: The method is simple, reliable and sensitive. It also shows good
resolation. It can be used in quality control of Xinmaitong oral liquid.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12776346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

141: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Dec;26(12):856-9.

[Inhibitive effect of puerarin on increased NO production by neonatal
cardiomyocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation injury]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhu ZT, Li HQ, Lu Y, Lou JS, Yao Z.

Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300203, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of puerarin (Pue) on nitric oxide (NO)
produced by neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.
METHOD: NO contents in the culture supernatants sampled from different groups
(control, model, and therapeutic groups with 1, 0.1, 0.01 g.L-1 Pue) at
different time were assayed with nitrate reductase method. RESULT: NO content of
model increased after reperfusion (P < 0.01), while it increased sharply at 6 h
after reperfusion and kept thereafter. Only at 6 h after reperfusion did Pue in
these three doses inhibit NO production (P < 0.01) and kept to the 24 h after
reperfusion. CONCLUSION: Pue exerts inhibitive effect only after NO production
is enhanced sharply during hypoxia/reperfusion injury in a dose-dependent trend.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12776339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142: Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Mar;26(3):210-3.

Study of substance changes in flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. during
storage.

Kim C, Shin S, Ha H, Kim JM.

Drug Research and Development Team, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 129-11
Chungdam-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-100, Korea. cskim@kiom.re.kr

Puerariae Flos is a traditional herbal medicine that has long been used as a
treatment for colds, diabetes, and hangovers. The herbal medicine contains a
wide variety of isoflavones such as kakkalide, tectoridin, and tectorigenin.
This study demonstrates that the substances undergo a certain degree of change
depending on the storage period by the method of HPLC and 13C-NMR, and that the
HPLC analysis can be used to determine the freshness of Puerariae Flos.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12723934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 28;303(1):326-31.

An overexpression of chalcone reductase of Pueraria montana var. lobata alters
biosynthesis of anthocyanin and 5'-deoxyflavonoids in transgenic tobacco.

Joung JY, Kasthuri GM, Park JY, Kang WJ, Kim HS, Yoon BS, Joung H, Jeon JH.

Plant Cell Biotechnology Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and
Biotechnology, Daejon 305-333, Republic of Korea.

We isolated the chalcone reductase (pl-chr) gene of Pueraria montana var. lobata
by using a PCR strategy from cDNA pools of storage roots. A high level of
expression of RNA was found in both stems and roots. The genomic Southern blot
result suggests that pl-chr exists as a member of a small gene family. By
introducing a pl-chr gene under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter into the
pink-flowering Xanthi line of Nicotiana tabacum, the flower color was changed
from pink to white-to-pink. The contents of anthocyanin in the flowers of the
transgenic lines were dramatically decreased by 40%, but the total UV absorption
compounds remained unchanged. The production of liquiritigenin in pl-chr
overexpressed transgenic tobacco lines was confirmed by HPLC and MS analysis.
The introduction of pl-chr gene provides a method to redirect the flavonoid
pathway into 5'-deoxyflavonoid production in non-legume crops, in order to
manipulate the phenylpropanoid pathway for isoflavonoid production.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12646206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Feb;27(2):177-85.

Herbal remedies for alcoholism: promises and possible pitfalls.

Overstreet DH, Keung WM, Rezvani AH, Massi M, Lee DY.

Bowles Center for Alchohol Studies (DHO), University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill, North Carolina 27599-7178, USA. dhover@med.unc.edu

This review summarizes the findings of the effects on alcohol intake in
alcohol-preferring rats of extracts or purified compounds from two of the most
promising herbs: kudzu (Pueraria lobata) and St. John's Wort (Hypericum
perforatum). It is a summary of a symposium presented at the 2002 RSA meeting in
San Francisco. The meeting organizers/co-chairs were David Overstreet and
Wing-Ming Keung. The presentations were (1) Introduction to the symposium, by
David Y. W. Lee and David H. Overstreet; (2) Effects of daidzin on alcohol
intake-search for mechanisms of action, by Wing-Ming Keung; (3) Long-term
suppressive effects of puerarin on alcohol drinking in rats, by David Overstreet
and David Y. W. Lee; (4) St. John's Wort extract reduces alcohol intake in FH
and P rats, by Amir Rezvani and David Overstreet; and (5) extracts reduce
alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats, by Maurizio
Massi.

Publication Types:
Congresses
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 12605067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

145: Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Aug;25(8):566-8.

[Estrogen-like effects of puerarin and total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata]

[Article in Chinese]

Zheng G, Zhang X, Zheng J, Meng Q, Zheng D.

Institute of Metaria Medica, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou
210013.

OBJECTIVE: To study the estrogen-like effects of puerarin and total isoflavones
from Pueraria lobata (TIP) in vivo. METHODS: Puerarin and TIP were orally
administrated to ovariectomized rats, infancy or adult mice and estrogen-treated
mice at the doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 5-9 days. The estrogen-like
effects were measured by viginacytology and uterus or ovary weights. RESULTS:
Puerarin and TIP significantly promoted uterus growth in ovariectomized rats and
infancy mice, increased the ratios of keratocytes in vaginal smear in
ovariectomized rats. The sexual cycle was partially recovered in dose-dependent
manner. In E2-treated mice, puerarin and TIP obviously inhibited the growth of
vigina induced by E2. No obvious effect was observed in normal adult mice.
CONCLUSION: The results showed that puerarin and TIP acted as weak estrogen-like
effect on estrogen-deficiency animals, while no effect on normal-estrogen level
ones, but as antiestrogen-like effect in high-estrogen-level ones. These results
suggested that puerarin and TIP possessed property of partial agonist of
estrogen receptor.

PMID: 12599693 [PubMed - in process]

146: Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Apr;25(4):273-5.

[Hypocholesterolemic effect of total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata in
ovariectomized rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Zheng G, Zhang X, Zheng J, Gong W, Zheng X, Chen A.

Institute of Metaria Medica, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou
310013.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata
(TIP) on lipid metabolism in estrogen deficient rat. METHODS: Female SD rats
were bilaterally ovariectomized under anesthesia. TIP was administrated orally
for 7 months. Serum lipids were determined at 1.5, 4.0 and 7.0 months, and liver
lipids were detected at 7 months. RESULTS: Compared with non-ovariectomized
rats, serum TC level and the ration of TC/HDL-C in ovariectomized rats were
obviously increased while HLD-C was slightly induced and TG level were
changeless. In TIP-treated groups, serum TC level and the ratios of TC/HDL-C
were markedly lowered than those in OVX group, while HDL-C slightly increased.
TG level were much reduced in 1.5 month and changeless in 4.0 and 7.0 month.
Slightly increase of cholesterol and markedly induction of triglyceride tissue
were observed in liver. CONCLUSION: TIP significantly decreased concentrations
of serum TC and liver TG in OVX rats.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12583180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

147: Zhong Yao Cai. 2000 Jan;23(1):46-8.

[Herbological investigation on traditional Chinese medicine gegen]

[Article in Chinese]

Zeng M, Zhang H, Zheng S, Su Z, Qian Z.

School of Pharmacy, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433.

In this paper, herbological investigation was carried out into a large of
Ben-Cao literature that concerned the origin, clinical use and other relevant
aspects of Gegen, from which we can judge that Gegen used in ancient times match
to that specified in the present Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Historical Article

PMID: 12575120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

148: Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Sep;20(9):468-9.

[Effects of Puerariae isoflavone on blood viscosity, thrombosis and platelet
function]

[Article in Chinese]

Yu Z, Zhang G, Zhao H.

China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038.

Puerariae isoflavone (500, 1000 mg/kg% x 7 d, p.o.) significantly lowered blood
viscosity and platelet adhesion rate, inhibited thrombosis and ADP-induced
platelet aggregation in rats, and showed obvious antagonism for platelet
thrombosis in ADP-treated mice.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12572427 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149: Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2001 Aug;15(8):366-7.

[Effect of the Purariae-isofiavones on atrophic nasal mucosas in ovariectomized
rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Qi B, Wang Z, Zheng M, Wu P.

Department of Otolaryngology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical
College, Kunming 650031.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Purariae-isoflavone on atrophic nasal mucosas
in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: 60 rats were divided into four groups randomly,
every group with 15 rats. The first group was studied as normal control group.
Rats of the second group were ovariectomized and not given any treatment. Rats
of the third group were given Weinian by gastrogavage from 30 days after being
ovariectomized to being killed. Rats of the forth group were given purariae
isoflavone by gastrogavage from 30 days after operation to being killed. Level
of Estrodiol (E2) of every rat was measured. Morphological changes of the nasal
mucosas were observed by light-microscopy and electron-microscopy. RESULT: 30
days after being ovariectomized, atrophic nasal mucosas occured, and average E2
level was lower significantly than that of control group (P < 0.05). Atrophic
mucosas recovered after being treated with Weinian or Purariae isoflavone. E2
level of the third group was lower significantly than that of the first group
and the second group (P < 0.05). E2 level of the forth group recovered (P >
0.05). CONCLUSION: Purariae-isoflavone have effects on treating the atrophic
nasal mucosas and recovering E2 level in ovariectomized rats.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12541906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000 Sep;25(9):525-7, 535.

[Hairy root induction and in vitro cultivation of Pueraria lobata willa. ohwi]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu CF, Li L, Shi HP, Pan RC, Yu SH.

Agronomy College of Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 Jiangxi,
China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the hairy root induction and hormone-free in vitro liquid
cultivation of Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi. METHOD: Co-cultivation of
super-virulent Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601 with P. lobata leaves in vitro.
RESULTS: Hairy roots of rapid growth, high branches and plagiotropism developed
vigorously on the surface of leaves, exhibiting rapid growth and resistance to
kanamycin in hormone-free medium in vitro. CONCLUSION: A method of hairy root
induction with A. rhizogenes as well as a system hairy root liquid cultivation
in vitro for P. lobata have been established.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12516461 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151: J Med Food. 2002 Fall;5(3):109-23.

Composition, red blood cell uptake, and serum protein binding of phytoestrogens
extracted from commercial kudzu-root and soy preparations.

Benlhabib E, Baker JI, Keyler DE, Singh AK.

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Minnesota, St. Paul Campus, 1333 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN
55108, USA.

Kudzu-root and soy phytoestrogens have been associated with anti-cancer and
anti-intoxication activities. Sales of capsules containing kudzu-root and soy
extracts through health food stores and the Internet are unregulated. To compare
efficacy, the amount of phytoestrogens present in commercial preparations and
their fate in biological samples must be determined. In this study, the levels
and composition of phytoestrogens in kudzu-root and soy extracts were studied
using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection.
The bioavailability of phytoestrogens was studied by measuring red blood cell
(RBC) uptake and serum protein binding ability. Phytoestrogen levels in
acidified kudzu-root samples were 5- to 10-fold greater than those in
nonacidified samples. Puerarin accounted for 80% of total phytoestrogens in
kudzu-root. In soy extract, puerarin was absent while genistin, glycetein, and
daidzin or daidzein were the major phytoestrogens. The RBC uptake depended on
the phytoestrogen's polarity and molecular length. When serum was dialyzed with
phytoestrogen standards in a buffer, the protein binding of phytoestrogens
correlated negatively with their polarity. However, when serum was dialyzed with
kudzu-root or soy extract, almost all of the phytoestrogens present in the
extract bound to serum protein. Therefore, this study suggests differences in
the bioavailability of phytoestrogens when they are ingested as purified
compounds compared with crude plant extract. The differential composition of
phytoestrogens in kudzu-root and soy may account for the differences in their
therapeutic activities.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 12495583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152: J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 18;50(26):7504-9.

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some natural polyphenolic compounds using
the Briggs-Rauscher reaction method.

Cervellati R, Renzulli C, Guerra MC, Speroni E.

Dipartimento di Chimica G Ciamician, Universita di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126
Bologna, Italy. rcerv@ciam.unibo.it

A new method based on the inhibitory effects of antioxidants on the oscillations
of the hydrogen peroxide, acidic iodate, malonic acid, and Mn(II)-catalyzed
system (known as the Briggs-Rauscher reaction), was used for the evaluation of
antioxidative capacity. With this method, which works near the pH of the fluids
in the stomach (pH approximately 2), a group of natural compounds present in
fruits and vegetables or in medicinal plants assumed to have antioxidant
capacity, was tested successfully. The aim of the present study is to evaluate
the antioxidative properties of some active principles contained in vegetables
and aromatic plants, namely, cynarin (from Cynara scolymus), rosmarinic acid
(from Rosmarinus officinalis), echinacoside (from Echinacea species), puerarin
(from Pueraria lobata), and oleuropein (from Olea europea). Also studied with
the Briggs-Rauscher reaction method was the antioxidant activity of cyanidin
3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (from Citrus aurantium) in order to compare the results
with those obtained by other methods. The conclusions on the dependency of the
antioxidative activity on the pH of the testing system are given.

PMID: 12475261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153: Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Sep;25(9):643-6.

[Protective effect of total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata on secondary
osteoporosis induced by dexamethasone in rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Zheng G, Zhang X, Meng Q, Gong W, Wen X, Xie H.

Institute of Metaria Medica, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou
310013.

OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of the total isoflavones from Pueraria
lobata (TIP) on secondary osteoporosis induced by dexamethasome (DXM). METHODS:
Female SD rats, 4 month aged, were given intramuscularly with 1.5 mg/kg DXM
twice once week. The treated groups were orally given TIP 100, 50 or 25
mg.kg-1.d-1 for 6 months. The whole body BMD and BMC were detected at 3 and 6
months. The biodynamics potency, density, ash weight and calcium content of
femur were determined at 6 months. RESULTS: (1) At 3 and 6 months, BMDs in TIP
100 mg/kg group were increased by 3.4% and 8.4% than that in model group, BMC
were increased by 7.0% and 9.1%, while in TIP 50 mg/kg group by 3.2%, 5.3% and
6.2%, 6.0%. (2) The Fmax and hardness in TIP 100 mg/kg group were enhanced by
10.3% and 10.5%, when in TIP 50 mg/kg group were enhanced by 3.5% and 7.1%. (3)
TIP can increase wet and dry weight in slightly extent, but significantly
increase wet density and dry density. (4) The ash weight and calcium content in
femur were increased by 3.1% and 4.2% in TIP 100 mg/kg group, 4.3% and 6.4% in
TIP 50 mg/kg group, while no change in TIP 25 mg/kg group. CONCLUSIONS: TIP can
prevent secondary osteoporosis induced by DXM in rats.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12451975 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154: Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):999-1003.

Stimulatory effect of puerarin on alpha1A-adrenoceptor to increase glucose
uptake into cultured C2C12 cells of mice.

Hsu HH, Chang CK, Su HC, Liu IM, Cheng JT.

Department of Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Effects of puerarin, an active principle contained in the roots of Pueraria
lobata (Leguminosae), on the regulation of glucose metabolism in an insulin
deficient state were investigated in cultured myoblast C 2 C 12 cells using
glucose uptake as indicator. Puerarin enhanced the uptake of radioactive glucose
into C 2 C 12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was abolished by
prazosin pretreatment. Activation of alpha 1 -adrenoceptors by puerarin was
further indicated by the displacement of [ 3H]prazosin binding in C 2 C 12
cells. The stimulatory action of puerarin on glucose uptake was also reduced in
C 2 C 12 cells pre-incubated with the antagonists, both WB 4101 and RS 17 056,
at concentrations sufficient to block alpha 1A -adrenoceptor (alpha 1A -AR). An
activation of alpha 1A -AR seems responsible for the action of puerarin in C 2 C
12 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73312 resulted
a concentration-dependent decrease of puerarin-stimulated glucose uptake in C 2
C 12 cells. This inhibition of glucose uptake by U73122 was specific because the
inactive congener, U73343, failed to block puerarin-stimulated glucose uptake.
Moreover, both chelerythrine and GF 109203X diminished the action of puerarin at
concentration sufficient to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC). The obtained data
suggest that an activation of alpha 1A -AR by puerarin in C 2 C 12 cells may
increase the glucose uptake via the PLC-PKC pathway.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12451490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155: J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2002 Dec;4(4):253-7.

New oleanene-type triterpene saponins from Pueraria peduncularis.

Li N, Min ZD, Wu HM.

Department of Natural Products Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University,
Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China.

Two new oleanane-type triterpene saponins named pedunsaponins B (2) and C (3)
were isolated from the roots of Pueraria peduncularis. Their structures were
determined to be
3-O-(6-O-methyl)-beta-glucuronopyranosyl-3beta,15alpha-dihydroxyolean-12-en-16-o
ne (2), and 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->
3)-beta-glucuronopyranosyl-3beta,15alpha-dihydroxyoleana-12-en-16-one (3), on
the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

PMID: 12450252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156: Planta Med. 2002 Oct;68(10):901-5.

Effects of puerarin on scopolamine-, mecamylamine-, p-chloroamphetamine- and
dizocilpine-induced inhibitory avoidance performance impairment in rats.

Hsieh MT, Kuo LH, Tsai FH, Wang WH, Wu CR.

Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Medical College, Taichung,
Taiwan, ROC.

Puerarin at 10-50 mg/kg attenuated the mecamylamine- but not scopolamine-induced
acquisition impairment of inhibitory avoidance performance in an inverse U-shape
manner. p-Chloroamphetamine- and dizocilpine-induced acquisition impairment were
reversed by puerarin at 25-50 mg/kg. Both piracetam, and tacrine attenuated
impairment of inhibitory avoidance performance induced by all used drugs.
Furthermore, puerarin, piracetam and tacrine alone did not alter step-through
latency in the training trail but puerarin at 50 mg/kg and tacrine plus
mecamylamine prolonged it in comparison with mecamylamine alone. From these
results, we suggest that puerarin attenuated the deficits of inhibitory
avoidance performance induced by mecamylamine, p-chloroamphetamine, and
dizocilpine, the effects were related to increasing cholinergic activity via
nicotinic but not muscarinic receptors, activating NMDA receptors, and
decreasing serotonergic neuronal activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12391553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002 Oct 15;30(3):843-9.

RP-HPLC determination of puerarin in Chinese traditional medicinal preparations
containing pueraria.

Yu BS, Yan X-, Zhen GB, Rao YP.

Department of Chemistry, Zhanjiang Normal College, Zhanjiang 524048, People's
Republic of China. yubingsheng@yahoo.com

Puerarin in a Gegen(Pueraria)-based Chinese traditional medicinal preparations,
Ganmao Qingre Granules, from four different pharmaceutical manufacturers and in
two different dosage forms, were determined using RP-HPLC with methanol-5 mmol
l(-1) KH(2)PO(4) (pH = 4.0) (V:V = 27:73) as mobile phase and UV detection at
248 nm. Ultrasonication and reflux were compared as pretreatment procedures for
the sample. Linear range over 0.2-200 microg ml(-1) of puerarin was obtained,
and the limit of detection was 0.1 microg ml(-1). Recovery was within 99.7-103%.
Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

PMID: 12367710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Dec;23(12):723-5, 763-4.

[A study on processing of the root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) ohwi by HPLC]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu S, Wang J, Liu C, Wen G, Liu Y.

Faculty of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing
100029.

OBJECTIVE: To study the changes of active components in the root of Pueraria
lobata after processing. METHOD: Using HPLC, with a C18 column,
MeOH-H2O-CHCl3(25:75:1) as mobile phase, and flow rate 1 ml/min. RESULT: The
Puerarin in different processed products of the drug is increased in content,
but gets seriously destroyed if processed by carbonizing. CONCLUSION: The
Puerarin content in the root of Pueraria lobata is affected by drug-processing.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
English Abstract

PMID: 12242820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 Mar;24(3):136-7, 149, 189.

[Analysis on chemical composition of genus Pueraria stems from China]

[Article in Chinese]

Zeng M, Zhang H, Zheng S, Shao F, Tao C, Su Z.

College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433.

OBJECTIVE: To provide scientific basis for developing and utilizing Pueraria
stems. METHOD: The contents of total flavonoid were determined by means of UV
spectrophotometry. The isoflavones in stems and roots of nine species of genus
Pueraria were analyzed by TLC. RESULTS: The stems and roots are similar in
chemical composition. CONCLUSION: Pueraria stems as a potential resource could
be used as a substitute for Pueraria roots.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12242793 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160: Plant Physiol. 1997 Dec;115(4):1413-1420.

Isoprene Increases Thermotolerance of Isoprene-Emitting Species.

Singsaas EL, Lerdau M, Winter K, Sharkey TD.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison,
Wisconsin 53706-1381.

Isoprene-emitting plants lose a large portion of their assimilated C as
isoprene. Because isoprene synthesis can be regulated, it has been assumed that
isoprene benefits the plant. Since the rate of isoprene emission from leaves is
highly responsive to temperature, we hypothesized that isoprene benefits plants
by increasing their thermotolerance. We used three methods to measure
isopreneinduced thermotolerance in leaves. Each technique assayed
thermotolerance under conditions that suppressed endogenous isoprene synthesis.
When measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, thermotolerance of kudzu (Pueraria
lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.) leaves increased as much as 4[deg]C in very low light.
With higher light, isoprene increased thermotolerance of kudzu leaves by as much
as 10[deg]C. When measured as the temperature at which photosynthesis declined
to zero, thermotolerance increased with added isoprene by 2.5[deg]C. All three
measures of thermotolerance were dose dependent. Both fluorescence techniques
also showed isoprene-induced thermotolerance in white oak (Quercus alba L.).
Thermotolerance was not observed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var Linden), a
species that does not emit isoprene. None of the experiments was designed to
determine the mechanism of thermotolerance, but we theorize that isoprene
functions by enhancing hydrophobic interactions in membranes.

PMID: 12223874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

161: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 Apr;24(4):238-9, 256-inside back cover.

[Cerebral protective effects of some compounds isolated from traditional Chinese
herbs]

[Article in Chinese]

Ma L, Xiao P, Guo B, Wu J, Liang F, Dong S.

Institute of Medicinal Plants, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking
Union Medical College, Beijing 100094.

OBJECTIVE: To study the cerebral protective effects of some compounds isolated
from traditional Chinese herbs. METHOD: Laser microcirculation dynamic analyzer
and cultured rat cortical neurons were used. RESULT: Pueraria lobata
flavonoids(LPF), Panax notoginseng saponins(PNS), oxymatrine, anisodamine and
berberine could dilate microvessels and increase the cerebral blood flow of
anesthetized mice's meninges. LPF, PNS, oxymatrine, and anisodamine also
accelerated the flow of blood. Oxymatrine, like anisodamine, increased
quantities of erythrocytes in high frequency movements. PNS could protect
cultured rat cortical neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity. CONCLUSION: LPF,
PNS, oxymatrine, anisodamine and berberine have certain protective effects on
brain, but differ in mechanisms of action.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12205950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 May;24(5):304-6, 320.

[Effect of puerarin on coronary collateral circulation in dogs with experimental
acute myocardial infarction]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu Q, Wang L, Lu Z, Li S, Xiong Y.

Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan
430030.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and mechanism of puerarin on coronary
collateral circulation in dogs with experimental acute myocardial infarction.
METHOD: Twelve dogs were randomly divided into puerarin (Gegen su, G) group and
control(C) group, the acute myocardial infarction model was built in all dogs.
Puerarin or saline was administered for 21 days. Coronary angiography was
performed before and after ligating coronary artery. The capillaries and
distribution vessel density in tissue sections of myocardium were assessed.
RESULT: Angiography on hour 2 and day 22 after ligating coronary artery revealed
significant augmentation of collateral vessels in G group versus controls.
Capillaries and distribution vessel density in ischemic and infarctive zone on
day 22 revealed statistically significant augmentation in G group versus
controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Puerarin might improve the opening
and forming of coronary collateral circulation to ischemic myocardium in dogs
and protect ischemic myocardium.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12205891 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000 Feb;25(2):91-3.

[Stable life prediction for a complex injection of Chinese materia medica by
initial average rate stability test]

[Article in Chinese]

Jiang B, Hou SX, Sun LL, Liu SK, Li ZW.

Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

OBJECTIVE: To predict the stable life for a complex injection of Chinese materia
medica. METHOD: The prediction was carried out by initial average rate stability
tests, and the contents of puerarin and danshensu (major active components of
the injection) were assayed by HPLC. RESULT: The degradation of puerarin
followed the first order action, while danshensu was hard to determine; the
t0.9,25 degrees C was 3.49 years and 1.69 years respectively. CONCLUSION: The
stable life of the injection has been determined as 1.5 years.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12212078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164: J Nat Toxins. 2002 Aug;11(3):173-86.

Comparison of phytotoxicity and mammalian cytotoxicity of nontrichothecene
mycotoxins.

Abbas HK, Shier WT, Gronwald JW, Lee YW.

USDA-ARS, SWSRU, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA. habbas@ars.usda.gov

The phytotoxicity and mammalian cytotoxicity of four nontrichothecene mycotoxins
(apicidin, sambutoxin, wortmannin, HC-toxin) were compared. Phytotoxicity was
evaluated in terms of electrolyte leakage, growth inhibition, and reduction in
chlorophyll content. Based on the parameters evaluated, the relative order of
phytotoxicity to duckweed (Lemna pausicostata L.) was wortmannin > HC-toxin >
apicidin >> sambutoxin. A 48-hr exposure to 10 microM wortmannin, HC-toxin or
apicidin caused electrolyte leakage from duckweed. The IC50 values for growth
inhibition and chlorophyll reduction for wortmannin, HC-toxin, and apicidin were
0.2 and 2.6 microM, 15.4 and 12.6 microM, and 27.7 and 45.3 microM,
respectively. Based on the parameters measured, a 72-hr exposure to 100 microM
sambutoxin was not toxic to duckweed. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata L.) leaf disc
assays revealed a similar trend in relative toxicities, but higher mycotoxin
concentrations were required to elicit phytotoxic effects compared to duckweed.
All four mycotoxins were cytotoxic to four mammalian cell cultures. However, in
contrast to plants, wortmannin was the least toxic (IC50 = 10 to 20 microM) and
sambutoxin exhibited a high level of toxicity (IC50 = 0.5 to 1 microM).

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12182537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165: Arch Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;25(3):320-4.

Potent antimutagenic and their anti-lipid peroxidative effect of kaikasaponin
III and tectorigenin from the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana.

Park KY, Jung GO, Choi J, Lee KT, Park HJ.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Pusan National University, Korea.

The MeOH extract of Pueraria thunbergiana (Leguminosae) flowers and its
fractions were subjected to Ames test to test the antimutagenicity. EtOAc
fraction (1 mg/plate) decreased the number of revertants of Salmonella
typhymurium TA100 by 95% against aflatoxin B, (AFB1). Phytochemical isolation of
the EtOAc fraction afforded four isoflavonoids (tectorigenin, glycitein,
tectoridin and glycitin) and one saponin (kaikasaponin III). Though the three
isoflavonoids other than tectoridin showed significant antimutagenicity, the
activity of kaikasaponin III was the most potent. Kaikasaponin III (1 mg/plate)
decreased the number of revertants of S. typhymurium TA100 by 99% against AFB,
but by 75% against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Tectorigenin (1
mg/plate) inhibited the AFB1-induced mutagenicity by 90% and MNNG-induced one by
76%. Glycitein and glycitin were less active than tectorigenin and kaikasaponin
III. This result suggested that kaikasponin III prevents the metabolic
activation of AFB1 and scavenge electrophilic intermediate capable of mutation.
The two components with potent activities, tectorigenin and kaikasaonin III,
significantly prevented the malondialdehyde formation caused by bromobenzene in
the rat.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12135104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

166: Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001 Dec;87(4):338-42.

Protective effects of puerariaeflos against ethanol-induced apoptosis on human
neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC.

Jang MH, Shin MC, Kim YJ, Chung JH, Yim SV, Kim EH, Kim Y, Kim CJ.

Departments of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University,
Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Puerariaeflos (PF) is an oriental medical herb for alcohol abuse. To investigate
whether PF possesses protective effects against ethanol (EtOH)-induced
cytotoxicity in the central nervous system,
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow
cytometric analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and reverse
transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed on SK-N-MC human
neuroblastoma cells. Cells treated with EtOH exhibited several apoptotic
features, while those pre-treated with PF prior to EtOH exposure showed a
decreased occurrence of apoptotic features. In addition, PF pre-treatment
inhibited the EtOH-induced increase in caspase-3 mRNA expression. These results
suggest that PF may exert protective effects against EtOH-induced apoptosis in
human neuroblastoma cells.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11829154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

167: Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Oct;24(10):1117-21.

Tectorigenin, an isoflavone of Pueraria thunbergiana Benth., induces
differentiation and apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

Lee KT, Sohn IC, Kim YK, Choi JH, Choi JW, Park HJ, Itoh Y, Miyamoto K.

College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Cytotoxic effects of six isoflavonoids, tectorigenin, glycitein, tectoridin,
glycitin, 6''-O-xylosyltectoridin, and 6''-O-xylosylglycitin isolated from the
flower of Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. together with genistein, a known
differentiation and apoptosis inducer, were examined. Among these isoflavonoids,
tectorigenin and genistein exhibited cytotoxicity against various human cancer
cells; glycitein showed only mild cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the
isoflavone structure and 5-hydroxyl group are crucial for the cytotoxic
properties and that glycosides are inactive. Moreover, tectorigenin induced
differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells to granulocytes and
monocytes/macrophages, and caused apoptotic changes of DNA in the cells, as did
genistein. Tectorigenin also inhibited autophosphorylation of epidermal growth
factor (EGF) receptor by EGF and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, with
less activity than genistein. From these results, tectorigenin may be a possible
therapeutic agent for leukemia.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11642314 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Phytochemistry. 2001 Sep;58(2):269-76.

Macrocyclic trichothecenes are undetectable in kudzu (Pueraria montana) plants
treated with a high-producing isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria.

Abbas HK, Tak H, Boyette CD, Shier WT, Jarvis BB.

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Weed
Science Research Unit, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA.

Myrothecium verrucaria was found to be an effective pathogen against kudzu grown
in the greenhouse and the field. M. verrucaria produced large amounts of
macrocyclic trichothecenes when cultured on solid rice medium, including
epiroridin E (16.8 mg/g crude extract), epiisororidin E (1 mg/g), roridin E (8.7
mg/g), roridin H (31.3 mg/g), trichoverrin A (0.6 mg/g), trichoverrin B (0.1
mg/g), verrucarin A (37.4 mg/g), and verrucarin J (2.2 mg/g). Most of these
toxins were also isolated from M. verrucaria spores and mycelia grown on potato
dextrose agar medium, including epiroridin E (32.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (28.6
mg/g), roridin E (0 mg/g), roridin H (60 mg/g), trichoverrin A (1.3 mg/g),
trichoverrin B (1.8 mg/g), verrucarin A (13.8 mg/g), and verrucarin J (131
mg/g). When M. verrucaria was cultured on liquid media, the numbers but not the
amounts of toxins decreased. Only epiroridin E (28.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E
(29.6 mg/g), verrucarin B (195 mg/g) and verrucarin J (52.6 mg/g) were measured
when the fungus was cultured on cornsteep medium. On soyflour-cornmeal broth M.
verrucaria produced several toxins, including epiroridin E (58.1 mg/g),
epiisororidin E (5.8 mg/g), verrucarin B (29.9 mg/g) and verrucarin J (32 mg/g).
In contrast, no macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected by HPLC analysis of
plant tissues of kudzu, sicklepod, and soybean treated with aqueous suspensions
of M. verrucaria spores formulated with a surfactant. Chloroform-methanol
extracts of kudzu leaves and stems treated with M. verrucaria spores were less
cytotoxic to four cultured mammalian cell lines than the corresponding extracts
from control plants. Purified macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin A and T-2
toxin) were very cytotoxic to the same cell lines (< or = 2 ng/ml). These
results show that neither intact macrocyclic trichothecenes nor toxic
metabolites could be detected in plant tissues after treatment with M.
verrucaria spores. These results argue for both safety and efficacy for the use
of M. verrucaria in biological control of kudzu and other noxious weeds, and
support proceeding to animal feeding trials for further evaluation of safety.

PMID: 11551550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169: J Chromatogr A. 2001 Jul 20;923(1-2):255-62.

Determination of puerarin, daidzein and rutin in Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi by
capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

Chen G, Zhang J, Jiannong Y.

Department of Chemistry, Medical Center of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
chengang69@citiz.net

A method based on capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was
developed for the determination of puerarin, daidzein and rutin. Effects of
several important factors such as the acidity and concentration of running
buffer, separation voltage, injection time, and detection potential were
investigated to acquire the optimum conditions. The working electrode was a
300-microm diameter carbon disc electrode positioned opposite the outlet of
capillary. The three analytes could be well separated within 12 min in a 40 cm
length capillary at a separation voltage of 9 kV in a 50 mmol/l borate buffer
(pH 9.0). The relationship between peak currents and analyte concentrations was
linear over about three orders of magnitude with detection limits (SIN=3)
ranging from 0.241 x 10(-6) to 0.511 x 10(-6) mol/l for all compounds. This
proposed method demonstrated long-term stability and reproducibility with
relative standard deviations of less than 5% for both migration time and peak
current (n=7). It has been successfully applied for the determination of
puerarin, daidzein and rutin in Chinese traditional drugs, the vines of Pueraria
lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Puerariae Radix.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11510548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

170: Am J Bot. 2000 Sep;87(9):1240-1245.

Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive
plant of the southeastern United States.

Pappert RA, Hamrick JL, Donovan LA.

Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 USA.
Departments of Botany and Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602
USA.

Pueraria lobata (kudzu), a clonal, leguminous vine, is invading the southeastern
United States at a rate of 50 000 ha per year. Genetic variability and clonal
diversity were measured in 20 southeastern U.S. populations using 14 allozyme
loci. Within its U.S. range, 92.9% of the loci were polymorphic and overall
genetic diversity was 0.290. Such high levels of genetic diversity are
consistent with its history of multiple introductions over an extended period of
time. The average proportions of polymorphic loci and genetic diversity within
populations were 55.7% (range = 28.6-85.7%) and 0.213 (range = 0.114-0.317),
respectively. The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations
was similar to species with equivalent life history characters (G:(ST) = 0.199).
No regional patterns of variation were seen. The number of putative genotypes in
each population ranged from 2 to 26. Mean genotypic diversity was 0.694, ranging
from 0.223 to 0.955. Such high levels of genotypic diversity indicate that local
sites are often colonized by several propagules (most likely seeds) and/or that
sexual reproduction occurs within populations after establishment. An excess of
heterozygosity was observed in populations with few unique genets, implying that
selection for highly heterozygous individuals may occur in populations of P.
lobata.

PMID: 10991894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

171: Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S38-42.

Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism.

Carai MA, Agabio R, Bombardelli E, Bourov I, Gessa GL, Lobina C, Morazzoni P,
Pani M, Reali R, Vacca G, Colombo G.

Bernard B. Brodie Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Via
Porcell 4, 09124, Cagliari, Italy.

The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the
reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal
models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia
miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing
alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal
system appears to be a common feature among most of the above plants. These data
suggest that medicinal plants may constitute novel and effective
pharmacotherapies for alcoholism.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 10930711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

172: Plant Physiol. 1999 Jul;120(3):821-6.

Thermotolerance of leaf discs from four isoprene-emitting species is not
enhanced by exposure to exogenous isoprene

Logan BA, Monson RK.

Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology, University of
Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0334, USA.

The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence
characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant
species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.),
quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor
Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 &mgr;L L-1 in compressed
air or 21 &mgr;L L-1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal
fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in
leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 &mgr;mol photons m-2 s-1 in an N2
atmosphere, 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced
inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of
photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was
increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21
&mgr;L L-1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on
the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes.
Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf
thermotolerance.

PMID: 10398717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

173: Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Jul;20(7):358-60.

[Antioxidation of Pueraria lobata isoflavones (PLIs)]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang G, Fang S.

Tongji Medical University, Wuhan 430030.

Isoflavones are isolated from Pueraria lobata. By studyign Pueraria lobata
isoflavones (PLIs) on lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in
animal tissue, this paper suggests that PLIs is an effective antioxidant. The
results in vitro show that PLIs can inhibit significantly the content of LPO.
The highest inbibition rate are found to be 79.7%, 84.7%, and 86.6% in liver,
kidney of mice and brain of rabbit respectively. By cold induced brain injury
with chalcone, the content of LPO and activity of SOD in animal blood and brain
are changed. When animals are injected with PLIs, the result indicates that the
PLIs can reduce significantly the content of LPO and enhance the activity of SOD
in animal blood and brain, in a dose-dependent relationship.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12572435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

174: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997 Jan;63(1):156-161.

Ethylene Production by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars In Vitro and In Planta.

Weingart H, Volksch B.

Significant amounts of ethylene were produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv.
glycinea, pv. phaseolicola (which had been isolated from viny weed Pueraria
lobata [Willd.] Ohwi [common name, kudzu]), and pv. pisi in synthetic medium. On
the other hand, the bean strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola and strains of
17 other pathovars did not produce ethylene. P. syringae pv. glycinea and P.
syringae pv. phaseolicola produced nearly identical levels of ethylene (about 5
x 10(sup-7) nl h(sup-1) cell(sup-1)), which were about 10 times higher than the
ethylene level of P. syringae pv. pisi. Two 22-bp oligonucleotide primers
derived from the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene of P. syringae pv.
phaseolicola PK2 were investigated for their ability to detect
ethylene-producing P. syringae strains by PCR analysis. PCR amplification with
this primer set resulted in a specific 0.99-kb fragment in all
ethylene-producing strains with the exception of the P. syringae pv. pisi
strains. Therefore, P. syringae pv. pisi may use a different biosynthetic
pathway for ethylene production or the sequence of the efe gene is less
conserved in this bacterium. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from kudzu
and P. syringae pv. glycinea also produced ethylene in planta. It could be shown
that the enhanced ethylene production in diseased tissue was due to the
production of ethylene by the inoculated bacteria. Ethylene production in vitro
and in planta was strictly growth associated.

PMID: 16535480 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

175: Plant Physiol. 1994 Aug;105(4):1427-1432.

Licodione Synthase, a Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Catalyzing 2-Hydroxylation
of 5-Deoxyflavanone, in Cultured Glycyrrhiza echinata L. Cells.

Otani K, Takahashi T, Furuya T, Ayabe S.

Department of Applied Biological Science, College of Agriculture and Veterinary
Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252, Japan (K.O., T.T., S.A.).

Cultured Glycyrrhiza echinata L. (Leguminosae) cells produce a retrochalcone
echinatin (4,4[prime]-dihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone) and its biosynthetic
intermediate licodione
[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-propanedione, a
dibenzoylmethane (keto form) or its enol tautomer ([beta]-hydroxychalcone)],
when treated with elicitor-active substances, e.g. yeast extract. A microsomal
fraction (160,000g pellet) prepared from yeast extract-induced suspension
cultures of G. echinata catalyzed the formation of licodione from
(2S)-liquiritigenin (7,4[prime]-dihydroxyflavanone) in the presence of NADPH and
air. This licodione synthase activity was shown to be dependent on cytochrome
P450 by its microsomal localization, requirement of NAD(P)H and O2 for activity,
and inhibition by typical cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Licodione synthase
activity transiently increased in the cells after treatment with yeast extract.
When (2S)-naringenin (5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavanone) and NADPH were incubated
with the same microsomal preparation, a polar compound, which further converted
into apigenin (5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavone) when treated with acid, was
produced. The reaction mechanism of licodione synthase is likely to be
2-hydroxylation of the flavanone molecule and subsequent hemiacetal opening and
is possibly the same as the previously suggested mechanism of flavone synthase
II from soybean and, furthermore, closely related to isoflavone synthase from
Pueraria lobata.

PMID: 12232298 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

176: Indian J Med Res. 1988 Apr;87:336-55.

A review of Indian medicinal plants with interceptive activity.

Kamboj VP.

PIP: 48 Indian plant species mentioned in ancient literature as inducers of
menstruation or abortion have been tested in rats or mice for anti-implantation
activity. An additional 65 plants not cited in old sources have been tested for
anti-implantation activity. All are tabulated by systematic and local name,
plant part used, activity reported in recent literature, estrogenic or
anti-estrogenic activity, and literature reference. 40 plants were found to
have anti-implantation activity. 23 plants were tested in rodents for
abortifacient activity, and all but 2 were active in 50% or more. Some of these
have been extracted for the active alkaloid, and one extract, from Pueraria
tuberosa, is being tested clinically. Many of the abortifacients were
traditionally used either as coating of abortion sticks to be inserted in the
cervix, or as gastrointestinal irritants. Those with toxic, neurotoxic, or
estrogenic effects were eliminated for further tests. The fact that many plants
were found to be active even though they were not mentioned in classic
literature, suggests that all Indian plants should be tested at random for
anti-implantation effects, under strict WHO guidelines.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 2844661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

177: Plant Physiol. 1986 Nov;82(3):718-723.

Nitric Oxide and Nitrous Oxide Production by Soybean and Winged Bean during the
in Vivo Nitrate Reductase Assay.

Dean JV, Harper JE.

Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801.

This study was conducted to determine by gas chromatography (GC) and mass
spectrometry (MS) the identity and the quantity of volatile N products produced
during the helium-purged in vivo NR assay of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv
Williams) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus [L.] DC. cv Lunita)
leaflets. Gaseous material for identification and quantitation was collected by
cryogenic trapping of volatile compounds carried in the He-purge gas stream. As
opposed to an earlier report, acetaldehyde oxime production was not detected by
our GC method, and acetaldehyde oxime was shown to be much more soluble in water
than the compound(s) evolved from soybean leaflets. Nitric oxide (NO) and
nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were identified by GC and GC/MS as the main N products
formed. NO and N(2)O produced from soybean leaflets were both labeled with (15)N
when (15)N-nitrate was used in the assay medium, demonstrating that both were
produced from nitrate during nitrate reduction. Other compounds co-trapped with
NO and N(2)O were identified as air (N(2), O(2)), CO(2), methanol, acetaldehyde,
and ethanol. Leaves of winged bean, subjected to the purged in vivo NR assay,
evolved greater quantities of NO and N(2)O (13.9 and 0.37 micromole per gram
fresh weight per 30 minutes, respectively) than did the soybean cv Williams
(1.67 and 0.09 micromole per gram fresh weight per 30 minutes, respectively). In
both species NO production was dominant. In contrast, with similar assays, NO
and N(2)O were not evolved from leaves of the nr(1) soybean mutant which lacks
the constitutive NR enzymes. In addition to soybean cv Williams, six other
Glycine sp. examined evolved significant quantities of NO((x)) (NO and NO(2)).
Other species including Neonotonia wightii (Arn.) Lackey comb. nov., Pueraria
montana (Lour.) Merr., and Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. evolved lower levels of
NO((x)).

PMID: 16665099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

178: Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris). 1985 Apr;13(4):649-55.

[Biological evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for contraceptive
efficacy in females]

[Article in French]

Prakash AO.

PIP: In a search for traditional medicinal plants having contraceptive efficacy,
plants were identified and collected throughout India, generally by purchase
from sellers of Ayurvedic remedies. The plants were air dried, cut, and
processed using different organic solvents. The contraceptive properties of the
plants were studied in rats, mice, and hamsters. Doses of 100-200 mg/kg of 137
plants were given orally to 5-6 animals for each plant. 27 appeared promising
enough for further testing in which 2-3 extracts of each plant were administered
to adult rats. The contraceptive action of 14 plants was confirmed.
Significant contraceptive effects were seen after administration of Crotalaria
juncea Linn, Verbena hybrida Linn, Verbena bonariensis Linn, and Pueraria
tuberosa. Embelia ribes Burm and Artabotrys odoratissimus Linn were found to
have interesting biologic properties but strong toxic effects. P. tuberosa had
strong estrogenic and progestational effects but was not toxic in a dose of 500
mg/kg for 30 days in adult rats. A hormone study and trial with P. tuberosa
should be undertaken with a view to eventual development of an oral
contraceptive.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12340145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179: Acta Eur Fertil. 1985 Jan-Feb;16(1):59-65.

Contraceptive potency of Pueraria tuberosa D.C. and its hormonal status.

Prakash AO, Saxena V, Shukla S, Mathur R.

A medicinal plant, Pueraria tuberosa D.C. has been thoroughly investigated for
its contraceptive potency in various animals viz. rats, mice and hamsters. The
activity has been further confirmed with respect to its habitat and seasonal
variations. The potent fractions have been studied for their biological
properties so as to elucidate its exact hormonal status. The observations
suggest that tubers of P. tuberosa D.C. possess significant antifertility
activity. The contraceptive efficacy does not alter significantly with respect
to the change in time and place of collection. Its crude powder, ethanolic aand
butanolic extracts evoke a significant antifertility activity in rats, mice and
hamsters whereas hexane, chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and benzene
extracts are significantly effective to prevent implantation only in rats and
mice. Aqueous extract does not show any significant antifertility activity in
all these three animal species. The studies on its biological properties suggest
that all the fractions of P. tuberosa D.C. possess significant estrogenic
activity. In addition to this activity, the crude powder also shows significant
progestational and mild antiprogestational activity whereas ethanolic and
butanolic extracts show significant progestational activity. Petroleum ether and
benzene extracts show only the estrogenic activity. The biological properties
and their differences in activity have been discussed in relation to
antifertility mode of action of P. tuberosa.

PMID: 4013619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

180: Acta Eur Fertil. 1984 Sep-Oct;15(5):393-4.

Effect of Pueraria tuberosa DC on the oestrous cycle of adult rats.

Mathur R, Vinita S, Prakash AO.

The effect of extracts of Pueraria tuberosa DC has been studied on the oestrous
cycle of adult rats. It is found that when petroleum ether and benzene extracts
are given orally to normal cyclic rats, within 3-4 days the diestrus phase is
transformed into a prolonged cornified stage, which persisted till the last day
of treatment indicating thereby the estrogenic nature of the extracts. The
administration of crude powder and ethanolic extract also induced cornification
but after the 13th day, the cornified stage changed into the diestrus stage
which continued till the last day of treatment. This type of change is thought
to be due to the multiple hormonal properties of the crude powder and ethanolic
extract.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 6543268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

181: J Ethnopharmacol. 1982 Sep;6(2):191-226.

Research on plants for fertility regulation in India.

Kamboj VP, Dhawan BN.

PIP: This present review of Indian plants investigated for fertility regulation
includes published literature of the country and unpublished data of the Central
Drug Research Institute (CDRI), located in Lucknow, India. Publications without
supportive experimental data have not been included. It is evident from the
data presented in the tables that most of the investigators have failed to
include the valuable information on the time and place of collection and proper
botanical authentication, if conducted, in their publications. The plants
evaluated at the Institute do contain this information and their herbaria sheets
are available at CDRI. The plants, with part used, type of extract, isolated
compound/chromatographic fraction, dose, route and schedule of administration
with animal used, and percentage activity are given in tables. The plants are
classified according to their activity profile and presented accordingly.
Plants for which the hormonal profile or toxicity data have been reported are
dealt with under each type of activity. Most of the investigators did not
develop the active plants, probably because of inconsistent results in repeat
tests or lack of facilities. Major attention has been devoted to identifying
plants with interceptive properties. The schedules used are more or less
uniform and acceptable. On the basis of preliminary toxicity data,
extracts/compounds from "Aristolochia indica," "Artemisia scoparia," "Hibiscus
rosa sinensis," "Laccardia lacca," and "Plumbago zeylanica" exclude themselves
from consideration for follow-up. Wherever done, the hormonal profiles revealed
estrogenic activity in active extracts/fractions/compounds from "Artabotrys
odoratissimus," "Datura quercifolia," "Daucus carota," "Embelia ribes,"
"Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Pueraria tuberosa" and "Tabernaemontana heyneana."
Thus they are not ideal for follow-up. Some more plants can be excluded
initially because of low activity or equivocal reports on activity. The
remaining plants, in order of priority, for follow-up should be "Ensete
superbum," "Achyranthes aspera," "Lygodium flexosum," "Sapindus trifoliatus,"
"Polygonum hydropiper," and "Abrus precatorius." The next priority could be
given to plants with weak estrogenicity. The CDRI has observed 100%
anti-implantation activity by 4 plants in hamsters. These should be the
potential plants for development since they appear to interfere with
progesterone synthesis or utilization.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 6752588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

182: J Chem Soc [Perkin 1]. 1973;9:907-11.

Tuberosin, a new pterocarpan from Pueraria tuberosa DC.

Joshi BS, Kamat VN.

PMID: 4735586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

183: Nature. 1960 Dec 3;188:774-7.

Miroestrol: an oestrogen from the plant Pueraria mirifica.

CAIN JC.

PMID: 13689829 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]

184: Curr Sci. 1949 Oct;18(10):379.

Seed setting in kudzu vine, Pueraria thunbergiana.

DABADGHAO PM.

PMID: 15395343 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]  

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